When the soul and a body are ill together
Psikhosomatika - the general for medicine and psychology a subject which investigates influence of mental factors on emergence and the course of somatic (corporal) diseases. It must be kept in mind the reaction to an emotional stress which is followed by both functional, and morphological (external) changes in bodies and fabrics of various systems of an organism by a psychosomatic illness. About 45% of people who address to doctors with these or those complaints, belong to the category of psychosomatic patients, approves WHO.
For the first time the term "psikhosomatik" was heard from lips of the German psychiatrist Johann Haynrot in 1818. He claimed that such horrible diseases as tuberculosis, a cancer and epilepsy "are born" in a human body from not less terrible emotional states - rage, , shame and sexual powerlessness.
The Austrian psychiatrist Siegmund Freud famous for much became the founder of the modern psychosomatic theory. Its work about so-called conversion dated 1885 claims what exactly the psychological conflict, without finding permission, compels the person to hurt - paralysis, deafness, a blindness, convulsions, an incoordination of movements, violation of the glotatelny act. The conflict most often is meant unacceptable by society as instincts (aggression, open manifestation of sexuality) and the cultural ban tabooing release of emotions and provoking developing of a psychological trauma. You want, for example, "" to nadavat on a cap" to the chief eternally dissatisfied with your work, having stated to him about three boxes. So not, it is uncivilized, and how subordination and professional ethics? Your desire so kramolno that is suppressed with subconsciousness before the consciousness manages to process this emotional flash.
Signals from a brain instead of being embodied in acts, are transported to somatic systems, leading to changes in work of their bodies. For example, psychosomatic violations of sight and hearing reflect internal refusal to see and hear something, and the constant unrealized desire to hit someone will halloo a hand pain. Modern practicians seldom treat communication of an external disease with the internal conflict so symbolically, however such cases take place to be. They are confirmed by diseases of people with limited imagination which feelings are put not into words, and acts.
Further - it is more interesting. When the problem from the psychological turns into a real disease, emotional fight of neurons declines. We get quite concrete disease which it is possible to diagnose and treat. And far from it! The internal conflict so after all also remained open, simply fell back into the shadow for some time. So, the real illness generated by it even at full complex treatment will get a chronic form sooner or later.
Where it is thin - will surely tear!
The modern medicine carries functional syndromes and psikhosomatoza to psychosomatic violations and frustration.
It is more than a half of patients with complaints to diseases of cardiovascular, digestive or urinogenital systems, respiratory organs and joints are prisoners of a functional syndrome. Real changes of bodies and systems in such patients, as a rule, are not found. From here "stone" in Freud's theory - a separate symptom has no symbolical treatment and does not serve as way of expression of the suppressed emotion, and is not a specific physiological symptom of certain emotional states. So, increase of a mark of arterial pressure in a condition of extreme excitement does not weaken it, and becomes only a physiological symptom of this emotional splash. Practice proves that in a zone of risk there are bodies and systems which are most subject to changes because of genetic predisposition of the person. It means that if you and someone from your relatives have, say, migraines, you need to pay attention not only to disease physiology, but also to be engaged in psychological aspect of a problem.
Psikhosomatoza express corporal reaction to conflict emotional experience which is connected with external changes and internal violations in bodies. The diseases which are originally carried to this group physicians nicknamed "the sacred seven of psikhosomatoz":
- essentsialny hypertensia;
- ulcer colitis;
- rheumatoid ;
- stomach ulcer and diseases of a 12-perstny gut.
Now the list of diseases of this group received considerable continuation. Also nervous anorexia and bulimia, obesity, , an emetic reflex because of nerves, , a cancer, are typical for psikhosomatoz. If to trust foreign researches, factors of external pressure (difficult domestic surroundings, adverse conditions of environment, conflict situations in collective) - the basis of 68% of all cases of bronchial asthma, in the ranks of hypertensive persons this ratio is even higher - 84%.
Corporal illness as signal
As "call" about the psychological conflict the somatic illness can be considered from various positions. Let's give some examples.
Illness as benefit basis. In this case the disease does not solve a psychological problem, it only allows to weaken the discomfort brought to them. Someone by means of an illness seeks to draw to himself attention, and for some the illness becomes a remarkable occasion to reschedule difficult conversation or an undesirable appointment.
Illness as prevention. The disease on the basis of subconscious memory can signal that a certain situation can become potentially dangerous. For example, the small child was frightened by a black dog. The child grew up and safely forgot about this incident. And suddenly he starts suffering from a causeless headache. Its source - a friendly black puppy, the domestic pet whom the person also bought. And though from a dog can not proceed any threat, subconsciousness sounds alarm.
Illness as compensation. If it is impossible to satisfy need for the psychological plan, it is possible to make it by means of a body, "having used" an illness which is suitable for realization of the purpose. For example, excessive adjournment of fatty tissue indicates desire to be protected, creating a peculiar board, and the increased sweating testifies that the person is not able to cry, including tears something shameful.
Illness as installation. In the 30th years of the last century some hypnotists won fame thanks to the most interesting trick from the point of view of a psikhosomatika - they "inspired" in the person a condition of a burn or bruise. Touched the hypnotized experimental a cold coin, assuring that it is heated or that it is a hammer. Under a coin the burn or a hematoma, respectively appeared. If power of thought of people can operate physiological reactions to an irritation source, based on subjective idea of their nature, it is possible to assume that the program created by us - our quite often incorrect views of that is the reason of many illnesses, "as it can be".
Behind an illness it is necessary to see the person
Very opportunely InfoAdvisor.net remembered Platon who claimed that the whole cannot be healthy if its any part hurts. Psychosomatic approach is justified only when the illness is considered not "in a context" this patient, and together with it.
On the one hand, the medicine was convinced for a long time that the physiology is unseparable with psychology, and features of nervous perception of the specific person provoke emergence in it of concrete diseases. On the other hand, this area so is not investigated yet that has no right to apply for a rank of independent branch. And among doctors it is possible to meet cardinally opposite opinions: one do not give due consideration of the concept of a psikhosomatika, including it an invention, others are inclined to carry to the category psychosomatic all diseases, except the venereal.
You trust in it or not, the fact remains: the psychosomatic disease successfully recovers only when the care is received by both a body, and soul. Therefore that except traditional treatment not superfluous will be to carry out work with the psychologist or the psychotherapist. And what tactics of treatment to choose, be it hypnosis, psychoanalysis or meetings with support group, to solve to you.