The microwave or, more precisely, microwave (the microwave oven – superhigh-frequency) the furnace works by such principle: microwaves are radiated (at the ultrahigh frequency which is specially picked up). They force to be guided on lines of electric field dipolar molecules (that is such at which the positive charge is concentrated on one end of a molecule, and on other – negative). Such molecules are some fats and water. As the field variable, thus is given to molecules the continuous movement – that is energy is transferred. And already from these molecules heat is transferred on all substance.
Microwave waves get into products on average on 2-5 cm, this layer respectively gets warm (but not all thickness of a product as it is sometimes approved in advertizing).
Characteristic of svch-radiation is that it does not destroy structure of biological molecules – for this reason the food cooked thus is not less safe, than prepared in the classical way.
The separate attention is deserved by a question of restriction of action of waves with microwave limits. Special protection is provided in modern microwave ovens – the metal case of the furnace shields a chamber, on a glass window the same function is carried out by the frequent metal gauze. There is still an option of the working oven at an open door – but usually microwaves are equipped with special locks for prevention of similar situations.
Problems can arise only at leaky closed door – for example due to pollution or wear of the condensing surfaces between the furnace and a door. It is easy to trace such situation by means of the ordinary radio receiver (or the TV). If at the working microwave oven in nearby the standing receiver there are hindrances (similar to that arise at the calling mobile phone), so there is a leakage of svch-waves, and it makes sense to check purity and tightness of a door – or to show the furnace to the master.
Advantages of microwaves
The first that the microwave in comparison with classical methods of cooking gives is a saving of time. First, process of a heat transfer happens 3-4 times quicker – because energy is brought not to a surface, and to a layer 3-5 cm thick. Secondly, the majority of microwave ovens can be programmed on consecutive performance of several operations – so, it is possible not to watch process, and to go about the own business (certainly, some experience is necessary for the correct drawing up the program.
The food cooked in microwaves on average is more useful, than similar, prepared in the classical way – because in a microwave products are seldom warmed more than 100 degrees and reduction of time of thermal treatment also brings the contribution.
The second advantage is the economy of electricity (in comparison with rangettes) – because almost all energy goes actually for cooking, but not for heating of kitchen and the surrounding atmosphere.
InfoAdvisor.net pays your attention to one aspect – lack of specific smells (and a smoke) in kitchen – it is simple because there is no need once again to open a door and probability of burning of products in the microwave oven significantly less, than at preparation on a usual plate.
And except all this, the microwave allows to warm food (and drinks) directly in that ware to what it will be given – and thus to save time and forces for washing of ware (and also on a food rearrangement from one ware in another).
Different models of microwaves differ in volumes of an internal chamber. The small volume (8.5-15 liters) is pertinent in kitchen of the bachelor. In such oven it is convenient to warm sandwiches or one plate with food – but no more. The average volume (16-20 liters) is suitable for a family from two people. Such microwave oven will already accomodate small chicken or a pan. For three-four people (or regular reception of guests) the oven with a volume of 20-30 liters will already be more pertinent. Well and for a big family – 30-40 liters. In such oven it is possible to prepare a turkey or big pie.
It would seem, it is better to take the microwave oven with the maximum volume – that there was a stock. But InfoAdvisor.net assures that it far not so. First, for an oven badly if often to use it with almost empty chamber is reduces service life and energy it is spent more than the necessary. The external sizes of the furnace become the second powerful argument – after all it cannot be put anywhere. Usually at microwaves short wires – because ovens work with a high voltage, the wire has to be rather powerful, and producers prefer to save on its length. Extenders are undesirable from the point of view of fire safety – and it when on all kitchen wires about which also it is possible to stumble are stretched is not esthetic.
Besides, the microwave oven has to stand rather steadily – falling will not do it good. But thus by nothing air vents have to be blocked – that is between an oven and a wall there have to be at least 10 cm of free space. On some models such openings from above – then the gap over them has to be not less than 50 cm. Still significantly that it is better not to turn the top plane of the microwave oven into a shelf (that is it is better to put on it nothing). The matter is that if on it to put something metal (or behaving similarly), something can be directed at it a charge (especially at not really new microwave), and it can spoil both a subject, and an oven.
At a choice of the microwave oven for house use of InfoAdvisor.net does not recommend to pursue the maximum power. The matter is that actually more qualitatively the food is cooked (and it is warmed) at low powers. Time increases only not so considerably.
According to users, InfoAdvisor.net can tell that 600 W in life are quite enough. And at this power it is necessary to prepare seldom. And here decrease in load of a network can be important advantage, especially in old houses.
By default power costs for 100%. Actually for different dishes it should be lowered by means of management.
So, for a warming up and maintenance of dishes in a heated state, the zavarivaniye of medicinal herbs, yeast dough are enough 60-100 W. For preparation of delicate products or fast defrosting of small portions 100-200 W there are enough. For soups, fish and meat dishes, , , vareniki are there been enough by 200-400 W. For meat, a bird, vegetables, sauces and drinks are there been enough by 400-600 W. Big capacities can lead to a peresushivaniye of dishes, and are admissible only on short periods.
Functional additives: grill, convection
In the classical microwave oven (still they are called solo microwaves) it is impossible to receive the crackling crisp crust or adequate pastries because products heat up only to 100 degrees.
To correct this omission, ovens are equipped with grills and systems of convection.
The grill happens quartz and tenovy. Quartz is the hardly twisted nikhromovy wire placed in a tube from quartz glass. Tenovy – a classical spiral (as in the rangette), in a metal tube.
Ovens with a tenovy grill are cheaper, than with the quartz. Usually tenovy grill can be taken out (increasing the net volume of an oven), and to establish differently depending on a specific objective. The quartz grill is warmed quicker, than tenovy, takes less places and practically does not need cleaning.
Some microwave ovens are completed with also lower infrared grill (usually together with top quartz) that allows to select temperature condition more adequately.
Convection is the mode at which hot (heated to the set temperature) air is evenly distributed on all volume by the built-in fan. This mode is necessary for baking and cakes – but can be also applied when , chicken, etc. Usually it is combined with the mode of microwaves – and then the same effect that in a good oven, is gained approximately only much quicker.
Except already considered, a grill and installation for convection, microwave ovens can be equipped and other equipment.
The multilevel lattice allows to warm some plates at the same time – and, having taken out it, it is possible to place in the furnace something rather big.
The lattice – actually for a grill is also intended for a grill. It is necessary only not to forget to put under it capacity for the flowing-down fat. In some models also the spit for a grill is possible.
The disk for frying – the special metal plate which is carrying out functions can appear the useful. Separately it is necessary to stipulate that any metal plate is no good – special alloy is necessary. By the same principle also the steam disk – something like works with a cover. At first the disk heats up, from it water, and from the received steam – products is already heated. All this is covered, made of material which does not pass a microwave, i.e. products are not exposed to direct influence of waves. Therefore in such a way it is possible to cook corn or eggs, without being afraid that they will explode.
The sound timer can save a lot of time and nerves – it is possible even to leave kitchen, and not to run to look at each 5-10 minutes at process, and quietly to wait for a signal of the termination of the program. Here it is only desirable that this function could be disconnected – that the timer did not peep all the time, yet will not open a door, and made the business and became silent.
In some furnaces it is enough to enter type of a product and its weight – and the microwave oven itself will calculate the necessary mode of preparation. Sometimes it is enough to enter only a type of a product – such furnace is able to determine weight independently.
Also the furnace can be equipped with steam sensor – for definition of that moment when the mode and a preparation time do not depend any more on the weight of products but only from their type (it just that moment when active release of steam begins).
Well and, perhaps, existence of the lock from children will be the last nuance. It can be blocking of a door (not only for that time when the food is cooked, but also in general – that the child could not take something hot), and blocking of management.
Management in microwave ovens happens mechanical (handles-rychazhki-toggle-switches), push-button and touch (that is the touch screen reacting to pressing in different places).
Mechanical control – the simply and reliable. It is simplest to work with it to kinestetika – it is not necessary to calculate seconds, it is rather simple to turn the handle on intuitively clear level. Usually this type of management provides only two handles – the timer and power. Respectively such furnace suits old men or teenagers, significantly simplifying life. But it is impossible to program the difficult program on such system.
For more difficult tasks the touch control system is necessary already at least. It already allows possibility of programming, gives more opportunities at installation of initial values, it is usually possible to choose the program which is already put in memory. But such control system is unstable to sharp fluctuations of tension – screens "burn out". And the child can make much that with such system – simply to admire as the picture on a screen changes.
The push-button control panel is more reliable option touch. Usually the screen for dialogue is applied to it – but it is necessary to press nevertheless the buttons which it is much simpler to repair, than the touch screen. The only shortcoming – is slightly more difficult to clean such panel after dirty hands.
Elite models of microwave ovens can be also completed with a remote control or the voice module – when the furnace pronounces that displays on the screen.
Internal finishing of a chamber
In principle this parameter has rather esthetic value.
The chamber can be covered with ceramics, bioceramics, or stainless steel from within.
It is simplest to look after ceramics – but it rather fragile (that is walls of a chamber need to be accurater). Stainless steel is more reliable, but over time grows dull (gloss can be restored by means of soft abrasive means, but it will demand some labor costs).
Cheap microwave ovens can be simply painted "under enamel". A problem of such option that paint most often does not maintain high temperatures. However, in ovens of such class grills and convectors so it does not play a big role practically do not meet.
The bioceramics is a usual ceramics with an antibacterial covering which has to interfere with reproduction of undesirable microorganisms. InfoAdvisor.net recommends to choose such microwave oven, only if it stands idle the long periods – differently actually radiations of the working oven yes elementary cleaning (of which the biocovering all the same will not relieve you) quite enough.
And finally, some useful tips for future and real users of microwave ovens.Ware
It is not obligatory to buy special ware for a microwave at all – it is quite possible to manage already available, at least at the beginning. Porcelain, faience, ceramics, a terracotta, glass, even paper cups is good. Important only that there were no metal rims and patterns (that is executed by metallic paints) because they can spark, and it in turn can lead to damage of an oven.
Some materials of which the ware is made, may contain also metals. There is an easy and safe way to check, whether the concrete subject suits for a microwave. Put in an oven a glass of water and the studied subject (near it). Include an oven for one minute at the maximum power. If everything is all right, water is warm, and ware – cold. If on the contrary, this ware does not suit for a microwave. Small nuance – if you decided to change the microwave oven, for all unspecialized ware such tests need to be carried out anew – working frequencies can differ a little.
Still unevident nuance – the ware has to provide a steam-out, differently it can blow up owing to a fast warming up.Way and preparation time
If it is known, how much time you need to prepare or warm a dish on a usual plate – divide this time on 3 and receive approximate time for a microwave.
If there is a recipe for the microwave oven of standard power (650 or 850 W), and your oven has no opportunity to expose the corresponding value of power, it is possible to count a preparation time. Increase power necessary for the recipe (let it will be 650 W) for the period of the recipe and divide into the power of your oven. Naturally, thus it is possible to receive only approximate time – both humidity of products, and their quantity, both the ware sizes, and layer thickness matter, and that, from the refrigerator you take products or they room temperature … InfoAdvisor.net advises always to expose time slightly smaller, and it will always be possible to add.
Also at calculation of time it is necessary to consider that fat and sugar accelerate process – because these substances heat up in the microwave oven more strongly, than water.
When defrosting products from them liquid which can be superfluous in the dish conceived by you is emitted. One more problem with it – it heats up, resulting these in unevenness of process of defrosting. Better somewhere in the middle of process to merge it.
Skilled hostesses advise not to hurry to take out the prepared dish from the furnace, and to allow it 10-20 to be defended minutes for more uniform distribution of heat.That you should not do
Cleaning of the furnace
- You should not turn on the microwave oven at an open door – though the majority of furnaces do not allow such, it not that case when it is possible to experiment.
- You should not turn on the furnace empty – it can deteriorate from that that energy of radiation, without having found the purpose, comes back in the radiating element. It is always better to keep in the furnace at least a glass with water – on a case of wrong single inclusions or, as secure, for small volumes of food (one sandwich, for example).
- It is better not to fry in oil (not to prepare in hot fan) by means of a microwave – oil can light up.
- It is better not to cook and not to warm eggs in a shell (except special a yaytsevarok) – they can blow up because egg yolk and white heat up with a different speed.
- For the same reason you should not warm products in hermetic vessels.
- Products with natural membranes (potato in a uniform, a liver, peas, corn, sweet pepper, meat, fish, etc.) it is necessary to pin a fork, to make an incision or, at least, to cover with a special film for microwave ovens.
- You should not heat in the microwave oven products with alcohol – the small fire is possible.
- Putting a vessel with liquid, remember that at a temperature close to boiling temperature, the allocated vials of air some time keep at a vessel bottom (it is specifics of boiling in a microwave). In order that liquid was not splashed out (as milk on a plate), it is better to put in it a glass spoon or a stick (just so that it did not reach furnace walls).
If you use a grill – substitute something under the flowing-down fat, it is much simpler, than then to wash it from an oven.
For cleaning of an internal chamber arrange to your oven a steam bath – simply boil in it water within five minutes. After that dirt will easily be washed away by a sponge (perhaps with addition of liquid detergent).
If to add to such water a little lemon juice, it will help to get rid of unpleasant smells.
The quartz grill can be not cleaned at all – all superfluous on it safely burns down. The Tenovy grill is cleaned in the same way, as well as furnace walls.
After cleaning of an internal chamber do not hurry to turn on the furnace – let it will dry. Especially important the grill managed to dry.