From the point of view of marketing the logistics represents system of the interconnected functions which performance does process of distribution of goods by the most optimum.
Essence of logistics and function
As functions which set makes essence of logistics, it is possible to call:
- Planning of sales volumes.
- Forecasting of production requirements in raw, labor, material, financial and other types resources.
- Planning of deliveries and choice of suppliers.
- Transportation of freights.
- Tracking of dynamics of demand.
- Formation of material stocks.
- Aftersales service.
Effective realization of above-mentioned functions provides achievement of a main objective of logistics which consists in timely delivery of goods in in advance defined place, using the minimum expenses.
As one of key problems of logistics warehousing of production acts. Now more and more the enterprises adhere in this question of Japanese system "Cannes Bang", i.e. make production "under the order". This approach to warehousing of goods minimizes need for rooms and does not allow a production surplus to lie too long in warehouses. But such strategy of warehousing demands high capacities to provide high efficiency of response of the enterprise to the arrived demands. Other lack of this system it is possible to call need of development of the long-term marketing program. It is connected with that in the market the preference is given to those goods which are shipped at once after the order, but do not keep the buyer waiting, going to production.
Indicators of structure of logistic system of the enterprise
Before designating structure of logistic system of the enterprise, it is necessary to investigate the following indicators:
- Quantity and types of warehouses. Their geographical site and estimated capacity.
- Types of production, raw materials and other material and production stocks which will be stored.
- The maximum and minimum quantity of each type of goods which has to be in a warehouse.
- Need of access to warehouse of the third parties.
Today the system of warehousing became completely automated. Demands of buyers according to which the volume of the realized production is planned are transmitted through the software on warehouses.
Each producer has to understand accurately the strategy of deliveries depending on a type of the made production and possibility of the consumer to wait. In this regard optimum delivery time of production not always is the shortest. The desire of the consumer to receive goods at the time of emergence of need belongs to foodstuff of prime necessity more often. For example, milk, bread and other food have to be in shops constantly. Their quantity decides on the basis of dynamics of demand on frequency of its daily fluctuation. The buyer is ready to wait for goods some time if the ordered production possesses certain properties of uniqueness, special quality, prestigiousness, etc. Such goods do not belong to production of mass consumption and are calculated on long-term use.
Types of vehicles
As other important problem at the organization of system of logistics at the enterprise transportation of freight to places of distribution and consumption acts. Transportation is the expensive process demanding detailed planning. Special value for transportation has transport which production will be delivered on channels of distribution.
From the point of view of logistics all transport shares on two big groups:
- Public transport.
- Transport of production use.
The vehicles relating to the first group differ in that can be used by any enterprises for movement of the goods for channels of distribution. These vehicles have own tariffs and speed of delivery of freight. Transport of production use moves material and production stocks only in the enterprise between production rooms.
For physical movement of goods on channels of distribution use the vehicles relating to the first group.
Each type of transport has the merits and demerits which are considered in table 1.
Table 1Types of vehicles
|1.||Motor transport||1. Urgency of delivery.|
2. Freight can be delivered from one warehouse to another.
3. Regularity of deliveries.
4. There are no strict requirements to packing.
|1. High cost of transportations.|
2. Small loading capacity.
3. Urgency of unloading.
4. Possibility of plunder of freight.
|2.||Railway transport||1. Possibility of transportation of goods under any weather conditions.|
2. Delivery can be carried out through any distances.
3. Delivery regularity.
4. Low tariffs of transportations.
5. Big loading capacity.
|1. It is impossible to deliver freight from one warehouse to another.|
2. A lot of time is spent in way.
|3.||Sea transport||1. Rather low tariffs of transportations.|
2. Big loading capacity.
3. Possibility of transportation of freight on long distances.
|1. Dependence on weather conditions.|
2. There is no opportunity to deliver freight from one warehouse to another directly.
3. Small speed.
4. Strict requirements to packing and maintenance of freight.
|4.||Air transport||1. High speed.|
2. Coverage of any areas and settlements.
|1. High tariffs of transportations.|
2. Dependence on weather conditions.
Choice of the optimum vehicle
Choosing the vehicle providing the most high-quality transportation of goods to the destination it is necessary to take the following factors into account:
- Schedules of delivery and their observance.
- Transport tariffs.
- Delivery speed.
- Vehicle loading capacity.
- Production volume which it is necessary to deliver.
- Reliability of transport company.
Each of these factors is analyzed in total with the others on the basis of what the conclusion about expediency of use of this or that vehicle is drawn.