It is possible to start an operating system without installation on the hard drive by means of the Live-CD technology (layv sit, in translation from English literally "a live CD disk". That is the system works only from a compact disk. Its functions are not cut down, it completely working. It is possible to work in office programs, to watch the sites on the Internet and all the rest.
Of course, the system works much more slowly. Therefore Live-CDs apply in case of emergency more often. For example, at computer infection with Windows viruses. Then it is possible to load the same Ubunta with Live-CD, to scan the hard drive the anti-virus program and to remove harmful programs.
So, let's start Ubuntu. For a start download an image of a disk from the official Russian-speaking site — ubuntu.ru/get. Also there is a question: "What version to download?". It is better to establish the LTS version. At the time of writing of article is 12.04. In April will leave 14.04. Well, and your obedient servant will show you everything on the example of version 13.04.
Thus, look at "Release with long support: Ubuntu 12.04 LTS CD". Download the version necessary to you: 32 or 64-bit. Pay attention that in exile "desktop" has to be written. It is the version for home computers. And here "server", respectively, for servers.
Downloaded? Now it is necessary to write down an ISO image on a disk. Use any suitable for this purpose .
Then insert a disk into the drive and send the computer for reset. Now we need to adjust BIOS on loading from a disk. For certain all of you are able to do it. For each computer sequence of actions the, but in general everything looks so:
- Right after turning on of the computer several times (that for certain) press the Delete key (sometimes F2) to get to BIOS.
- Find the Boot tab.
- Adjust in it a loading order: CD, the second — HDD has to be the first.
- Pass to the Exit tab and choose Save and exit, in the appeared window press Y.
That's all, loading went! After small expectation (half-minute-minute) there will be a window with an action choice — the Ubuntu installation or loading without record on the hard drive. We choose Russian in the list and we press "to Start Ubuntu".
Quite so also Unity — a standard user environment looks. I will tell at once, at first unusually to work with it. First, there is no traditional panel of tasks. It is replaced completely by the lateral panel (it is impossible to move away her). Secondly, the classical Start-up menu in Unity too is not present, it is replaced by Dash with system of lenses (tabs or sections). It is possible to build in search in social networks, in Wikipedia, in a calendar Dash and so on. According to the standard he looks for programs, photos, music and video at you on the computer and on the Internet. To open Dash, press Ubunta's logo at the left above.
Panels of tasks as that too are not present. "But after all from above there is a panel!", - you object. Actually the line from above is used for the global menu and a system tray. What is the tray, you for certain know: time, badge of an apportion, notice of various programs and so forth. And here the global menu — it something unclear.
Try to start, for example, LibreOffice Writer (LibreOffice — is analog of MS Office, and Writer — analog of Word). Pay attention that the Close/turn/unwrap buttons by default are at the left. Now guide the cursor at this panel at the top of the screen. There was a menu of the program: classical "File", "Edit" and so on (all in English, as localization in Live-CD incomplete).
In it and essence of the global menu: for economy of a place the line of the menu in the majority of programs appears on the panel above. In general, all design of Unity is optimized under wide-screen monitors. At the edges there is a lot of place, but it usually is not used. Therefore also the panel with programs settles down sideways.
Further it is necessary to adjust a combination of keys for switching of apportions. Click on a keyboard badge in a tray. Choose "Keyboard Layout Settings". In the left part of the appeared window you will see the list of languages. But they are not necessary to us at all therefore remove everything, except Russian. To remove language from the list, click on its name and press a minus from below. Press plus sign to add a new apportion — English.
Then click on "Options" on the right below. Find "Keys to change layout". Put a tick opposite to a combination of keys, convenient for you, Alt+Shift, most likely. Can close settings windows.
The key with the Windows logo in Ubunta is called as "Super". Press it — Dash will open. Press Alt — the window for input of teams will open. Do not press Ctrl+Alt+Del! The task manager will not open, but will be disconnected X Server (the graphic mode will be switched off, there will be a console). To minimize all windows — Ctrl+Super+D. Clamp Super to see the complete list of hotkeys and combinations.
Try to be connected to the Internet further. Connect the modem, and further, most likely, the system will be adjusted automatically. You will need to enter login and the password (well and other settings of your network). Click on a network badge in a tray (looks as two strelochka) and choose "Edit Connections". Find the connection in the list and press "Edit". Walk on tabs and enter data necessary to you.
I will not make more recommendations — be played with system! Look at all appendices, try to connect the webcam, the printer and any other devices to check compatibility. Do anything — you will not be able "to bang" system!
Of course, many actions look differently, than in Windows and the interface not habitual. For example, the text from a clipboard by default can be inserted pressing the average button of a mouse. Labels cannot be transferred to a desktop, transfer of files the right button of a mouse does not work. But believe — over time it will be pleasant to you Ubunta and Unity! You will understand that actually here everything is more convenient, simply philosophy, so to speak, another.
Well, we will try to establish Ubunta? Are ready to come over to "the light side of force"? Let's begin, but a little later.
Preparation for installation
- Copy on a flash card, the external hard drive or fill in in important documents, family photos and all in this spirit. Of course, at installation your files will not be gone, but it is better to be reinsured.
- Make a backup of bookmarks of the browser. In Google Chrome it is enough to enter the Google-account, everything will be automatically synchronized.
- If you use Steam, make backup copies of games. Later you will be able to restore them in Ubuntu. I and itself was surprised when Windows-copies were earned in Ubunta. However, about 100-200 Mb all the same should be downloaded anew, but these are trifles.
- Check compatibility of your equipment. Simply hammer into a search engine the name of the printer, scanner, videocard and all the rest that at you is. Only attribute "linux" or "ubuntu" - "bearpaw 1200cu plus ubuntu", "geforce 610m ubuntu 13.04".
- Finally, be loaded with good mood! As Linus Torvalds, "Linux Philosophy speaks: "Laugh in a face of danger". Oh. Not that. "Make itself". Yes, it is correct".
Did not unload Live-CD yet? Click on an icon "to Establish Ubuntu" on a desktop.
In general, not so difficult installation as many consider. I can tell that simpler to establish Ubunta even, than to establish Windows. You and are now convinced of it.
It is desirable to adjust connection to the Internet at once. Linux without the Internet — dead Linux. Neither the program to download, nor updating to establish, everything to translate into Russian. Therefore it is better to adjust it from Live-CD in advance. And it will be still possible to sit, for example, on social networks in an installation time of system.
If you have a laptop, it is better to connect it to the power supply — in the socket.
Still the fitter will suggest to download the third-party software. Here codecs (for reproduction of audio and video), Flash and some drivers enter (for videocards, generally). Of course, it is necessary to agree — tick off and press "to Continue".
It is possible to download at the same time and updatings of system, but it will be simpler to establish them later.
Further — the most interesting step — a disk marking. Be not afraid, it is not so difficult. Choose "Other option". For a start a small educational program on disks in Ubunta.
As you perfectly know, in Windows most often there are two disks — a disk C (usually on it OS is established) and a disk D (on it other files — documents, photos, games and so on most often lie). At someone one disk, at someone five — not an essence.
In Linux instead of a disk C there is a root catalog which is designated by a slash (virgule)-/. Here OS and all programs is established. Catalog/home — is a disk D, for analogy. The folders "Documents", "Images", "Music" and so forth it is stored here. There is also the third section — the section of pumping of swap. It as if addition to random access memory: when the last is filled, the swap section assumes part of loading.
So, press "The new table of sections". Let's present that I have only one blank disk (screenshots from the virtual computer, be not surprised to such small volumes). We see / dev/sda. It is also all hard drive. If I had disks C and D, there would be also / dev/sda0 and / dev/sda1 (counting goes from zero). I have only "empty seat".
We click on the name of the carrier, we press on a plus from below. Make everything as on a screenshot below — it is our root section. Only put the size more — about 10-15 Gb.
Here my personal experience: allocated 20 Gb, and it is used only 7. Programs I established not really much — office, the graphic editor, the virtual computer and couple of trifles. If you plan to establish a large number of programs, allocate 20 Gb. If it is not a pity for a place — put all 30 Gb, to walk, so to walk!
Then we create the house section - / home. For it it is necessary to allocate the maximum volume — not less than 50 Gigabytes. It is desirable — almost all are rigid a disk. At you, for example, 320 Gb; 300 from them let there are on / home. All your user files will be stored here: music, video, documents, loadings and so forth. And, for example, games from Steam still here are established. So, make everything on a screenshot (besides, figures have to be more).
And, at last, the third section — the section pumping/swap. Usually its volume is calculated so: volume of random access memory * 2. But now at all there is a lot of RAM, not less than 2 Gb are exact. Therefore the formula can be such: RAM volume + half. If you is more than 4 Have some of random access memory, let the swap will be 2 Gigabytes, precisely will be enough. Again all on a screenshot.
At you everything has to look approximately so:
Let's consider one more case. Let you have on the computer two disks — C (60 Gb) and D (260 Gb). Here everything is very simple. We copy all important data on D (especially important files better to copy still somewhere). We start installation and we do still. We reach a disk marking. We allocate C (by the size will find it), we press a minus. Attention! Check once again! The section is removed, there will be 60 gigabytes of an empty seat.
Further these 60 Gigabytes it is divisible in the above described way: 2 Gb — a swap, 18 Gb — a root, 40 Gb - / home. And the most interesting — we will attach the section with a disk D to Ubunta. Here it is called "to primontirovat the section". We mount this section (plus) with any name, for example, / data. DO NOT FORMAT IT!
By the way, be not surprised if the window with the prevention jumps out that primontirovanny sections are found. Simply press "Yes", and everything is farther as usual.
After all procedures press "To establish now". Installation process will be started. And we will finish initial control of system so far — the time zone. Simply specify the city. Further — an apportion. Russian, of course. In the field from below can check. It is possible to start auto detection of an apportion: you will answer couple of questions — the system will define the necessary languages.
The following step — a choice of a user name, the computer and the password. A name and the computer it is left on your imagination. About the password I will explain. Here it is required for installation of all programs and for control of system. Therefore choose not too long password, but also not too simple. It after all safety! Include function of automatic login.
Everything, all steps are complete! The system is installed, and you can descend on kitchen — to drink to tea. Agree, unusual installation, but simple and interesting! It was necessary to perform initial tuning. It will take about 15 minutes. Forward!
The Ubuntu control right after installation
It is necessary to establish Unity Tweak Tool — the small program for more detailed control of an environment of Unity. Open the Center of appendices (a package badge), enter the name of the program in a line of search and press the Establish button in results. It is not necessary to specify a loading place, the program will automatically be downloaded and will be established in the root catalog.
After installation start Tweak Tool. Actually, walk on tabs and adjust everything to the taste. If Unity brakes, clean, for example, animation and transparency of panels.
Personally I recommend to put the Show a Desktop button (is in "The start panel"). Also include additional workplaces (Control of Workplaces tab). What is the workplace? It is a desktop. Here I have, for example, 4 desktops. Convenient piece, on one table the browser is open, on the second the Center of appendices downloads programs and so on. Options for use a set. Dream! Windows can be moved between tables — simply clamp Alt and drag a mouse a window in the necessary party.
Open "Elements of management of a window". Establish badges (to close a window, to curtail, develop) on the right side if is so more habitual to you. But, I will tell you, it is possible to get used literally in a couple of hours to the left side.
In "Scrolling" to control scrolling of pages two fingers if you have a laptop.
Now open standard settings of system from Dash. Besides walk on tabs.
By the way, Mirsovetov recommends to you not to place labels on a desktop. You object supposedly same conveniently and quickly. No! Programs quicker to start from Dash or from the lateral panel. And the pure desktop looks accurater and better, especially with beautiful wall-paper.
- Come into the Center of appendices and install applications necessary to you. Can replace the FireFox browser with Chrome, for example. As a messenger I advise Pidgin. An audioplayer leave standard, it also is so quite good. Establish Skype, Steam if you use them.
- And small council for a Rhythmbox player. With standard settings it is sometimes started very long. Open it and come into settings - "Pravka-Moduli" (if lost buttons, guide a mouse at the top panel — there the global menu). And still it can be started from settings of a sound (simply click on a loudspeaker badge in a tray). Include only MPPIS D-Bus interface, the MediaServer2 D-Bus Interface and Notices. Disconnect all the rest.
- Restore the bookmarks in the browser, passwords on the sites, restore games in Steam from a cache (last time we made it, you remember).
Well, welcome everything! Now you know how to establish Ubuntu. Accustom to new system! In the following article we will learn to start Windows applications in Linux. See you soon!