In procedure of all-clinical trial of blood (quite so "the leaf with analyses" scientifically is called) there is nothing difficult.
Why it is necessary
For what we ? The doctor has to estimate a condition of our organism in a case when we address to it with complaints to health. Also the expert does this assessment on the basis of indicators of the content of hemoglobin in erythrocytes, the speed of subsidence of erythrocytes, a leykotsitarny formula. To render a final verdict, the doctor compares the received results of analyses to norm indicators - the characteristic of "healthy" blood. The discrepancies connected with increase in percentage quantity of any type of cages in blood speak about states which names are formed by addition of the terminations "-iya", "-oz" or "-ez", to the name of the corresponding form of cages. For example, neytrofilez, eozinofiliya, eritrotsitoz. Reduction of percentage indicators of cages is designated by addition to their names of the termination "-singing" - a neytropeniye, an eozinopeniye.
How to be prepared for a blood capture
InfoAdvisor.net will remind you, on what it is necessary to pay attention that results of analyses were as much as possible exact. Blood from a finger is handed over on an empty stomach is means in the morning that after the last meal has to pass about 10 hours. Before a campaign in policlinic it is possible to drink a little water (, coffee, dairy products - a taboo). If the day before you took alcoholic drinks, it is better to forget in general about visit of laboratory for some days. Besides, one days prior to procedure you should not be engaged in intensive physical exercises, to go to a bath.
About what tell figures
Hemoglobin (Hgb) occupies about 95% of erythrocyte proteins. Its main mission - to transfer oxygen. The content of hemoglobin in blood varies depending on a floor: norm for men - 130-160 g/l, for women - 120-140 g/l.
The increase in concentration of hemoglobin speaks about the following states:
- the increased quantity of erythrocytes.
Decrease in indicators is noted at:
Erythrocytes (RBC) - bags with the hemoglobin bearing oxygen or carbon dioxide. Norm for men - 4,0-5,0х10-12/l, for women - 3,7-4,7 x 10^12/л. A sign of an eritrotsitoz - increase in quantity of erythrocytes. Eritrotsitoz depending on indicators shares on primary and secondary. Indicators from 8,0-12,0 x 10^12/л and more indicate primary eritrotsitemiya which in many cases is observed against one of leukosis forms (a benign disease of blood) - eritremiya.
Secondary increase (very high rates) of percentage of erythrocytes testifies about:
- diseases of lungs;
- congenital warm defects;
- stay at height;
- molecular changes of hemoglobin.
Reduction of concentration of erythrocytes it is observed at:
- to big loss of blood;
- reduction of development of erythrocytes in marrow;
- the accelerated destruction of erythrocytes.
At blood also there are young forms of erythrocytes - retikulotsita. Their norm - 0,2-1,2% of total number of erythrocytes. Their quantity reflects the speed of work of marrow where new erythrocytes breed.
The Speed of Subsidence of Erythrocytes (SSE) - at the healthy person in norm keeps within 1-10 mm/hour (man) and 2-15 mm/hour (woman). It is necessary to consider that indicators of SOE can change under the influence of a number of the physiological reasons (meal - to 25 mm/hour, periods or pregnancy - to 45 mm/hour). From increase of SOE good it is not necessary to wait for anything, it speaks about existence of inflammatory process in an organism. It can be:
- infectious and inflammatory diseases (pneumonia, sepsis, myocardial infarction, , );
- inflammatory processes owing to injuries and fractures of bones;
Besides, increase of SOE can be also caused and not inflammatory states:
- liver diseases;
- diseases of kidneys;
- , thyrotoxicosis;
- pregnancy, postnatal period, periods;
- poisonings with chemicals (for example, arsenic);
Decrease in SOE is observed at:
- eritremiya (benign disease of blood);
- increase of level of bilious acids;
- chronic insufficiency of blood circulation;
- influence of preparations (aspirin, calcium chloride).
Leukocytes (WBC). These white blood little bodies protect our organism from different uninvited guests - viruses and bacteria. They the bigger size, than erythrocytes, but by quantity much more concede of Norma - 4,0-9,0 x 10^9/л. At the increased level of leukocytes speak about a leykotsitoza, considering thus its form. Physiological leykotsitoz it can be observed at quite healthy people as reaction to certain natural states (the last trimester of pregnancy, the last day before periods, during breastfeeding, after hot bathtubs, in some hours after food).
Pathological leykotsitoz specifies first of all on:
- sharp inflammatory or purulent process;
- cerebral hemorrhage;
- chronic liver failure;
- majority of infectious diseases: , , pneumonia.
Reduction of quantity of leukocytes (leykopeniye) - a sign of bad development of young leukocytes in marrow. It is observed at:
- radiation sickness;
- viral diseases;
- system red wolf cub;
- cancer diseases with metastasises in marrow;
- anemias at shortage of B12 vitamin.
Platelets (PLT) - the smallest cellular blood plates, but from it not less important. Normal coagulability of blood and elasticity of vessels depends on their normal quantity. The sufficient maintenance of platelets is expressed in a formula 180-320 x 10^9/л.
Thrombocytopenia always signals about the following disturbing states:
- violation of formation of new platelets (at alcoholism, anemia, for example);
- accumulation of platelets in a spleen;
- harmful influence of medicines on functions of a brain.
Trombotsitoz signals about existence in an organism of chronic inflammatory processes, sharp infections, about growth of malignancies.
Having studied the above information you easily will be able to orient in indicators of own blood test, but remember that to appoint treatment, irrespective of your awareness, the doctor has to.