Speaking to language of psychotherapists, this phenomenon is called as a digrafiya. The concept "dysgraphia" means that the child cannot learn to write competently. He writes with mistakes which repeat constantly. If it is about full inability to the letter, then such phenomenon has the name "agraphia". Besides, often, the dysgraphia closely "cooperates" with a dyslexia – when at the child ability to pronounce words during reading is partially broken. It is connected not only with insufficient attention, and also with special spatial perception, as well as with a visual memory when the school student cannot remember and distinguish this or that letter.
Often, violation of a competent statement of the text on paper is followed also by a dizorfografiya which means that the child cannot remember rules of spelling and to put them into practice.
Unfortunately, all these deviations carry to mental disorders, and experts do not consider the child mentally retarded as on all signs the child is considered absolutely healthy.
The dysgraphia in three-four cases meets more often at boys, than at girls. If to take a percentage ratio of all school students of one average school, about five-eight percent of school students suffer both a dysgraphia, and a dyslexia.
Psychotherapists claim that most often the disease is descended. If the child is genetically predisposed to imperception of information, it is necessary to lead discussion with his family by relatives. Often cases when one or several people from a family at school age had such deviation meet.
At such deviation, since the first class, children are troubled mastering skills of the letter. Especially difficultly for them to take offers dictation. If such child writes a dictation, it will appear that in its work there will be many mistakes. Except grammatical mistakes, children often ignore writing of capital letters, and also points, a dash and commas. And besides, often school students with the diagnosis have "dysgraphia" very bad handwriting.
From year to year such children know about the shortcoming and try, especially when writing compositions, to use the short phrases consisting of several words. In them they too make mistakes.
Often, especially after the fourth class, school students do not wish to visit lessons because hesitate, take great pain to shirk performance of tasks on Russian, and even at all miss lessons.
Over time children-disgrafisty become "derelicts", they do not want to participate in life of school, shirk public works. Having reached maturity, such people try to find work where it is necessary to write nothing, and to lives are not capable to compose and write even a greeting card.
How to distinguish
It is easy to distinguish a dysgraphia. First graders, especially by the end of the year when all letters are passed, and many schoolmates already freely write and read, "disgrafist" continues to confuse similar letters. He confuses a letter "Z" to a letter "E", and a letter "P" often writes as a soft sign, overturning it upside down.
Besides, such children often confuse letters "Sh" and "Shch", without noticing in them distinctions. They write very slowly and if to force them violently, handwriting will be awful.
To understand why so occurs, it is necessary to start studying the child, as they say, from far away. All know that the person has three types of hearing:
- Physical which helps everyone to hear noise of the nature: rustle of leaves, noise of water, rain, thunder, hum of bees. And also other sounds: knock of wheels, plane engine roar and so on.
- The musical. Thanks to this ability of people enjoys favourite melodies, sings the pleasant motives.
- The speech. It is possible to have excellent ear for music, but thus not to understand and not to catch told, not to distinguish the accord and not to perceive the speech as it moves.
Often at the child who has deviations in the letter, the hearing is broken. Naturally, to it not easy to learn at the same time, correctly to read and write. By the way, he can well read, but thus write with mistakes. It is very difficult for it to seize the letter as he does not distinguish sounds. Its task considerably becomes complicated as to the child it is necessary not only to catch a sound but also to write it – to write a certain letter. For this reason to teachers not easy to work with such children.
Often teachers meet such widespread mistakes as a pronunciation and the wrong perception of words. So, instead of the word "daughter", the child having a dysgraphia can write "point". It means that there is a violation of the offer, so and its meaning is lost.
Quite often "disgrafist" very badly write words, but receive a praise at drawing lessons. It means that at such children the "ancient" area of a cerebral hemisphere when much hundreds years ago the ancient person expressed by means of rock paintings is developed.
Except these symptoms, often logopedists and psychotherapists at communication with the child ask to show the notebooks. If at the patient "mirror" writing of letters, perhaps is observed, this deviation is connected and with characteristic of the lefthander or there is a speech about the hidden form of lefthanders.
Whom to blame?
In spite of the fact that becomes more increasing than children-disgrafistov, still unambiguously it is impossible to tell about a cause of illness. Scientists assume some reasons:
- immaturity of a brain;
- genetic predisposition;
- head injuries;
- difficult pregnancy;
- difficult delivery with complications;
- the postponed infectious diseases;
- frequent catarrhal diseases;
- the bad and wrong speech in a family;
- application at once two and more languages in a family;
- not frequent communication with the child;
- shortage of many visions: pictures, books;
- early and energetic training of children by various "developing" techniques;
- lack of psychological readiness of the child to school.
How to help the child?
There are some directions of disposal of a dysgraphia. The most widespread exercise which it is possible to carry out houses – deletion and underlining of certain letters in texts. Thus, the child develops a visual memory, analyzes the actions, and also pronounces letters aloud.
Besides, to the child suggest to copy more texts. Quicker to remember letters, offer the child pictures on which letters and a subject are represented.
Unfortunately, there is no prevention from a dysgraphia. It is impossible to warn this deviation, but to reveal it on early terms it is possible. Also it is desirable still before the child goes to the first class.
Such children get to group of risk:
- children who grow in bilingual families;
- children lefthanders who were retrained to write with the right hand (and vice versa!);
- children who do not perceive sounds correctly;
- the children having bad memory are inattentive and badly concentrate.
In most cases independently it is impossible to cope with a problem. To the child appoint occupations with the logopedist which are directed on training of speech hearing, training of memory, concentration of attention and perception of an alphabetic row.
Except occupations with logopedists, it is recommended to children to visit massages, physiotherapeutic offices, treatment-and-prophylactic gymnastics, the pool.
In some cases the neuropsychiatrist can appoint reception of medicines which will promote improvement.