Hypertensive illness — this continuous or periodic increase of the arterial pressure (AP). Than the hypertension is dangerous? The matter is that the blood vessels penetrating everything bodies and systems of our body have a certain pressure — it is force with which blood presses on vessel walls.
All know that at measurement the HELL two indicators, for example 120/80 are used. The first figure – the systolic pressure, i.e. pressure upon a vessel wall after warm reduction. The second figure — the diastolic pressure, a blood pressure indicator upon a vessel wall in a break between warm reductions. What pressure is considered normal? If the person is quiet, his arterial pressure should not exceed 140/90 is an upper bound of norm.
Often as the reason of short-term rise in pressure the stress, a sudden fright serves (the person went to buy some bread, and his car nearly brought down — the endured fright forces adrenal glands to throw out a fair portion of adrenaline in blood, blood fills vessels, the person it is speeded up breathes and as a result pressure increases). If the person has good health, pressure quickly comes back to norm.
However constant stresses provoke frequent rises in pressure, and gradually for an organism the elevated pressure becomes "norm". For example, the person works at a senior position, constantly makes business trips and feels thus normally. However if systematically to measure pressure, it will become clear that its "normal" pressure for a long time not 120/80, but 140/90... Its vessels already adapted for a high pressure that is not normal is already initial stage of a chronic hypertensive . At this stage of people feels periodic , feeling of weight in a nape, short-term heartbeat increase, occasionally pains in heart.
But hereditary predisposition is the most important reason of a hypertension — if your parents had a hypertension, your chance to ache increases. Even if hereditary predisposition is not present, the hypertension can be got independently: development of a hypertension is also promoted by smoking, abuse of alcohol, excess weight, a hypodynamia and as it was already told, frequent stresses.
In addition InfoAdvisor.net would like to remind that to rise in pressure promotes and I will merge abuse (and who from us does not love salty tomatoes cucumbers, — a herring, a vobla, etc.). Salt causes increase in volume of the circulating blood and increases sensitivity of walls of vessels to vasoconstrictive factors.
To make the diagnosis, it is necessary to provide to the doctor data on the arterial pressure for some time. If you suspect at yourself a hypertension, InfoAdvisor.net recommends to measure daily in the mornings the pressure and to write down result. It is necessary to measure pressure at rest (for rest after loading a necessary minimum – 5 minutes), before measurement it is necessary to smoke and to drink . Adopt the convenient provision on a chair (the back leans on a back of a chair, do not cross a foot), put a hand (better right, in it usually more high pressure) on a table, thus the clothes should not squeeze a hand in any place. Fix a cuff of a tonometer at the height of 2 cm above an elbow pole, but not too hardly (between a cuff and a hand one finger has to be located freely). If all of you make thus, measurements of pressure will be the most exact.
In two-three weeks you will have enough data that the doctor could draw a right conclusion on existence/absence of a hypertension at you. If pressure increases for a while and goes down independently — it does not demand treatment as in vessels still there are no changes. The person only occasionally suffers from headaches, nausea.
When pressure after rise (to 140/90, 150/100) comes back to norm only at rest — it is already stable arterial hypertension (its first stage) who needs to be treated. Symptoms of this stage of a hypertension are emotional instability, strong headaches, intense pulse, on ultrasonography expansion of borders of heart is visible to the left. However at many people the first stage of a hypertensive illness passes unnoticed, and start treating her only when it passes into heavier phase.
At the second stage of an illness the hypertensive crises which are characterized by sharp rise in pressure, a headache, feeling of compression in heart already start developing. Arterial pressure at a hypertension of the second degree very high (to 180/115) that provokes changes at an eye bottom, changes in kidneys. Heart starts working in the emergency mode, pumping over the increased blood volume because of what the hypertrophy of the left ventricle of heart develops and cerebral (brain) blood circulation weakens. Heart pererastyagivatsya, the cardiac muscle weakens and there is a short wind, even at the minimum physical activity.
The heaviest — the third stage of a hypertensive illness (arterial pressure to 230/130) when one of syndromes prevails: warm, brain or kidney. The warm syndrome is characterized by narrowing of a gleam of vessels because of what heart suffers from a lack of oxygen and coronary heart disease develops. If the kidney syndrome dominates, are gradually wrinkled, losing the functions. The brain syndrome is expressed at first in short-term losses of consciousness, then, eventually, the patient starts suffering from microstrokes and strokes.
Treatment of a hypertension
Treatment of a hypertensive illness consists in a constant control behind the HELL level and administration of drugs, supporting the HELL in a stable state. There are some groups of preparations which action is based on various mechanisms of pressure decrease.
b-blockers. These preparations reduce heart rate, reduce peripheral vascular resistance. b-blockers (Atenolol, Metoprolol, Lokren, Visken, etc.) appoint at bradycardia (very rare heartbeat, less than 55 freaks in a minute), bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis.
IAPF – inhibitors angiotensin - the turning enzyme. These preparations block development of the renin (developed by kidneys) which causes increase the HELL. These preparations (Kapoten, Metiopril, Enalapril, Tritatsa, Moeks, Prestarium, Tsilazapril, Spirapril, etc.) promote the return development of a hypertrophy of the left ventricle of heart, expansion of coronary vessels, improvement of peripheral blood circulation.
Antagonists of calcium. Their general principle of action — blocking of calcic channels in walls of vessels, increase in a gleam of vessels, and, as a result, decrease the HELL. Korinfar (Nifedipine), Amlodipin, Felodipin — influence vessels, and preparations similar to Verapamil act directly on heart. Side effect of these preparations is the headache, dizzinesses, hypostases.
Diuretics — diuretics which reduce liquid volume in an organism that conducts the HELL to decrease. At a hypertension Gidrokhlortiazid, Indapamid, Klopamid, Hlortiazid — these means are used not only reduce arterial pressure, but also preserve potassium in an organism which is usually washed away at reception of other types of diuretics.
For treatment of a hypertension the doctor, first of all, will advise the patient to change a way of life: to refuse cigarettes and alcohol, to eat poorly salty products, to avoid stressful situations. If the hypertension well responds to treatment, the doctor appoints one preparation (it is a b-blocker, IAPF, or diuretic). If pressure does not decrease under the influence of one preparation, the doctor appoints a combination of two or more drugs. InfoAdvisor.net recommends strongly: do not try to pick up independently, "at random", for yourself a preparation for lowering of arterial pressure, so you only do much harm to the health. Only the cardiologist will pick up medicine necessary to you.
To get rid of a hypertension forever — it is impossible, after all walls of vessels for years adapted to , and medicines we cannot return their former state. But if constantly to control the arterial pressure, it is possible to notice manifestations of a hypertension in time and to take measures.