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Video filming bases

The shootings of control, wrong, improper under this character, can harmful affect not only on "health" of your chamber, but also result of video filming. Therefore, having learned to use these or those options of a chamber, you not only will increase its return, but also raise art and technical quality of the captured video on absolutely other level.
Видеокамера Here the video camera already flaunts on your table, and all of you in impatience already at last to shoot attentively study the guide to its operation. Stop! About what it I? Whether and many do it? It is sure that is not present! The majority strains to be in action at once. And, by the way, in vain! Many problems, both technical, and the art plan, arise because of obscurity of this book! Because the shootings of control, wrong, non-optimal, improper under this character, can harmful affect not only on "health" of your chamber, but also result of video filming. It will be very offensive to see disgusting quality material. Therefore after all I advise not to hurry and read this management. If you learn to use these or those options of a chamber at the necessary moment, you not only will increase its return (why to overpay spare cash if not to use it), but also raise art and technical quality on absolutely other level.
The main advantage of a chamber – opportunity to imprint the moving picture. Here it is also necessary to direct all forces when shooting to realization of this function. But about everything one after another.
By this moment, you likely, already read the management and accurately know, as well as that joins and adjusted – it is time to start! Here a lot of things depend on type of your chamber. So what chambers happen? But! Besides, how it can affect result of video filming? And here is how.
Let's tell, a chamber cassette, cartridge duration, as, however, and other carriers, not infinite. You started shooting a scene, and the cartridge, as ill luck would have it, ended, required very long procedure of change of the cartridge, and nobody waits for you! Here therefore, knowing as far as data carriers are enough (cartridges, memory cards, etc.), and also the accumulator, you can date their change in pauses between scenes in advance.

Types of video cameras

Видеокамеры Once long ago there were movie cameras which made record on a photosensitive film. However now they are used only professionally for shooting of large-format cinema (for movie theaters).
There were also analog chambers making record on a magnetic tape (VHS, S-VHS, VHS-C, Video-8, etc.), but they already sank into oblivion. They were succeeded by digital cameras, but they wrote down too on a magnetic tape (miniDV, DV). If miniDV already actually inherited a fate of the previous chambers, the format DV still remains at us in professional chambers, but about them we will not be, since the speech about amateur video filming.
There is not a lot of settings at above-mentioned (amateur) chambers. Generally they concern effects which are, as a rule, very useless because where more effectively to apply them at installation about which we will talk in the following article. However, if you want after all, to watch the finished shooting material as is, and these effects on a chamber can fit.
In the modern market of video cameras there are already beskassetny devices, namely chambers with record on optical disks, however, it already too outdated option. There is a record on the hard drive and on a flash store, i.e. on the solid-state store.
Here some settings of these cameras also we will work.

Preparation of a video camera for shooting

Меню видеокамеры And control begins with an entrance to the menu. At once I will make a reservation, it will be a question of those settings which can affect technical or art quality of shooting. How to activate this or that mode depends on a concrete chamber therefore here we will not go into detail. So, we will begin!
Though it also does not influence quality of shooting, but I recommend to determine date and time nevertheless. It to you will help to define subsequently chronology of events. But nevertheless "to press" date and time in a shot I do not recommend strongly! If a chamber beskassetny, these data are easily established by date and time of creation of the file. At the pressed date about any art quality cannot go to a speech shot.
Then at once we switch off a digital zoom and we forget about it. It in most cases too useless function because quality since there is a simple scaling of the picture very strongly falls, and without support nothing to do.
Will not prevent under your tasks to adjust a microphone if it is allowed by a chamber. For example, Panasonic does chambers with an extensive set of options of a microphone. The matter is that when shooting actions where the sound is important, it is necessary that its quality was accepted. In my opinion, the zoom microphone most approaches. I.e. the corner of "hearing" of a microphone is coordinated with the provision of a zoom lens – the viewing angle is wider, the field of "hearing" at a microphone extends more. It is possible to establish so-called syurraund where capture of a sound happens in many planes that does sounding volume, thus quality of a sound turns out fine. Another thing is that not on all data output devices (TVs, computers) it will be possible to receive the same quality.
Also some chambers allow to adjust depth (bitnost) of a sound, as a rule, it either 12, or 16 bits. The more the number, the better (nasyshchenny tones) a sound, but also a flow of information, and volume of files increases. Again, being guided by a subject and importance of the shooting. For example, if to remove cacophony of the city, the sound of poor quality suffices. Here I want to emphasize that if to plan processing of video (installation), in most cases the sound in general is cut out.
Similar picture with video size. Many digital cameras allow settings of the size and a ratio of the parties. The more the size, the is better quality (higher clearness), but on the carrier this video figures prominently. If there is no deficiency of a place on a data carrier or short shooting is supposed, I recommend to readers of to remove with the maximum size and, therefore, the maximum quality.
And here the ratio of the parties of a shot does not influence quality, but influences result. The most running standards 4:3 (the long party is more short by 1,33 times) and 16:9, and also 3:2 for a photo. The majority of ordinary TVs and monitors have a format 4:3. The format 16:9 is the specification for HDMI. TVs with support HDMI and some monitors have it. It is a so-called wide format.
From here conclusion. If it is required to capture more when shooting the horizontal plane (to make coverage wider), it is more favorable to apply 16:9; if, on the contrary, to make the vertical plane (more higher), 4:3.
Основы видеосъемки But it is necessary to remember about at what you will watch then this video. I.e. if the format of video does not correspond to a format of the device displaying this video, use of the area of the screen will be irrational. For example, when viewing video of a format 16:9 on the TV 4:3, black fields across, i.e. from above and from below are formed. If, on the contrary, a source 4:3, and the TV 16:9, this field are on verticals and here even more irrational use of a shot. Of course, many TVs in this case will stretch the image, but it will become distorted.
Here generally those setting up the menu which are most interesting and significant. There are still very important settings of an exposition, focus about which you learn from a further narration.
So, everything is adjusted, it is possible to remove!
But do not hurry especially if you want to go on "exit" video filming. What is necessary? Do not forget to charge the accumulator(s), to copy the available fragments on the computer and to clear a data carrier in a chamber that the empty seat was enough. Check serviceability of a chamber. Now it is possible to remove!

Double one!

The basis of any video filming is made by only some components: correct rack (situation); truly chosen point of shooting and a foreshortening; on a plot the picked-up exposition; timely and high-quality movements by a chamber and zoom lens; vision of prospect; timely occupation of the necessary position.

The correct rack – the key to success!

Правильная стойка повышает качество видеосъемки To increase quality of shooting as it is strange, it is necessary to reach the correct position in space. Your comfort (convenience of a rack and opportunity for maneuver) depends on it. The quicker you are tired, including from inconvenience of situation, the quality of the finished shooting material falls quicker, trembling of a chamber, etc. amplifies. Moreover and not in a tired state incorrectly chosen situation harmful affects your creation. For example, you want to make a panorama, at once I will tell that in classical shooting of a panorama become the movement of a chamber from left to right or from top to down, and so, if you got up incorrectly, because of physiological features of a backbone, you maybe will not manage to turn as you wanted, and the panorama will not turn out. To avoid such excesses, on an initial time I advise readers of to be trained, not including records on a chamber. Over time you will know already in advance as it is necessary to rise.
Standing on one place, put feet at the level of shoulders, so your camp will be steadier, and on the image there is less than jolting. If you want to move, consider that for strengthening of effect of the movement on video it should be done, without switching off record. In advance examine ways of withdrawal elementary not to stumble, look, whether it will be possible to sit down when it is required. By the way, do not hesitate to sit down or, on the contrary, to lift a chamber up when that is demanded by nature of video filming, thus do not forget that the chamber can be held and at an angle.
At the movements with the included chamber, move with small steps, even slightly shuffling the feet not to cause excessive jolting and noise of steps.

Point of shooting and foreshortening

Точка съемки и ракурс при видеосъемке The point of shooting is a place from which you remove, and the foreshortening is a corner between an optical axis of a lens of a chamber and a subject of shooting, i.e. speaking more simply, the foreshortening is a corner between a chamber and a scene.
Here it is necessary to remember that there is a movement, and it has to develop harmoniously in a shot. For example, you settled down so unsuccessfully that characters almost always are to you a back or often leave a shot. Therefore, choose such point and such foreshortening that such did not occur, leave a place for maneuvers. Consider also that moment that, having changed a foreshortening on a vertical axis, it is possible to contain more details in a shot. For example, you remove the child who though is small, but all does not enter (to the utmost) a shot. Will occur so if you remove it from a knee, i.e. having sat down to be about one height. And if to remove from the level of the growth, the child will be depicted in all the growth. But in this concrete case do not abuse, since a look haughtily not really priglyaden.
Here it is necessary to develop intuition of development of a scene and in due time to take a necessary place. Do not remove standing on one place at all – the result will be very boring!

Zoom lens and transfokation

Основы видеосъемки Do not rely also on convenience of a zoom lens. Yes, it is convenient, but often leads everything to the same skuchnost of the events. Only, where the zoom lens, so it dominates at video filming of landscapes and architecture, when shooting mass actions.
By the way, I will remind, the zoom lens is the device allowing to change focal length of a lens that leads to change of the plan with small on large, or on the contrary. And also also the corner of a field of "sight" of a lens changes. The more frequency rate of a zoom (approach is more), the is less (already) a viewing angle more influence of jolting.
Than the zoom lens is useful and how effectively to use it?
Main "fad" of this device which, is by the way, inherited by chambers from time immemorial – ability "to snatch out" a subject from an environment. And here in what its essence.
It is natural that this reception when shooting people is most applicable.
When shooting a scene the general plan you find an interesting look or other action, at last, you simply want to allocate this person from society. Thus, as soon as the chamber passes by this elect, quickly enough "run" a zoom lens into a face of this person, thus having stopped the movement of a chamber. After some delay, and long it is not necessary to detain a chamber (1-2 c), "kickback" and smooth renewal of the movement is made. But I advise readers of not to abuse this opportunity – frequent repetition of these manipulations leads to faster exhaustion of the audience who will look through your creation subsequently.
And now about why it is better to run about but not to use a zoom lens.
First, at once it becomes clear that there are situations when transfokation range simply is not enough. Or the object of shooting does not hold in a shot and it is necessary to depart, or the object is excessively small and it is necessary to approach, on the contrary. Also we will remember that on the maximum approach you will not be able long to remove because jolting very strongly affects.
Secondly, do not forget about coal of a field of vision of a lens. In the provision of a zoom lens 1kh (the smallest approach), the viewing angle of a lens is maximum. It allows to capture the greatest space, but specification of the image will be the greatest if subjects are not so removed from a lens. By the way, it is necessary to use shot space intelligently. It is desirable not to allow emergence of ugly elements. Watch framing.
With increase in frequency rate of a zoom the viewing angle decreases. And if you were too lazy to approach that was larger, it can turn out so, what not everything that you planned, will enter a shot. How it is better to crop?

Framing of the image

Основы видеосъемки That sees your view-finder (display) is understood as this term, in a broad sense – a lens, and he sees not everything. As it was told slightly above, it is necessary to remove so that under review, i.e. in a shot, excess and unesthetic subjects did not get. Unlike the photo the retouch of video is very difficult and laborious, it is connected with that on video is a lot of shots which should be retouched.
When you build a shot, do it so that the main subject of shooting borrowed as it is possible the most part of a shot, that a background which in most cases very unattractive, was as less as possible bright. It as if and logically, you remove action, people, but not a background. Another matter – video filming of landscapes and architecture where is not present as those characters. But also in this genre "surprises" in the form of musornitsa, etc. can get. Consider also that moment that similar "surprises" can suddenly appear at a transfokation.
But you should not panic even if you do not manage to avoid similar excesses when shooting, it can be cleaned at installation.
There is still a nuance of framing. At portrait shooting differ head (a close up, when in a shot only the head portretiruyemy), zone (the average plan, naturally, from the head and on a belt) and, at last, growth (the general plan, in all growth). Head it is better to apply when the person either talks, or expresses the emotions that it was visible a mimicry. Growth when there is a wish to show all actions made by the person, for example, dance. Zone is something average when the person stands still, but carries out any actions by hands.
Try to have when framing the main subject of shooting as it is possible closer to the center of a shot. It both will improve perception and will increase quality of the image, since resolution at lenses in the center much more, than on suburbs.

And how to translate plans?

And here, unlike photographing, a big field for the imagination. We considered the perspective translation of the plan above. It is also possible to translate plans in the horizontal and vertical planes. It is natural that these receptions can be combined. But at once I want to afflict that the majority of digital cameras "tear" a panorama (it belongs only to the movements by a chamber in the specified planes). It is expressed in a picture derganye though you also did not allow breakthroughs at the movement by a chamber. Therefore avoid fast movements. I will repeat that classically panoramas are carried out from left to right or from top to down. But it is not necessary to go in cycles and persistently to conform to this rule. If the object of video filming moves "not classically", it is necessary to depart from the above rule. And here moment! If you want to fix constantly actions of object of shooting – keep it constantly in a shot the corresponding movements of a chamber. But if it is necessary to strengthen effect of speed, how it is strange, it is necessary to move a chamber towards to object. At the translation of the plan from one character for another, for example, at their dialogue, do not try to follow precisely at all to an order of this dialogue that will cause messing around by a chamber – it will be impossible to watch it. Learn to translate plans along with a transfokation.
And how still it is possible to translate the plan?
Yes, the video camera, besides unlike a camera, allows to execute and one more reception of the translation of the plan when saving the provision and an invariance of focal length. It is carried out by the translation of focus from the foreground on back or on the contrary. However, this reception is possible only in the presence of manual focusing in a chamber, and conveniently to do it only by a focusing ring.
Remembering that depth of sharpness is minimum on long focal lengths, performance of this reception makes sense only on very big frequency rate of a zoom, as a rule, within 5 … 8kh.

Translation of the plan focus

Основы видеосъемки We include the manual mode of focusing (manual focus) on a chamber and we direct sharpness at a subject necessary to you. Then, without moving a chamber and without touching a zoom lens, we transfer smoothly focus to a background. And only at this moment we remember that did not include record!
Though it was also the joke, but in it there is an element of truth. At first it is better to make this reception "in single", i.e. not including records to be trained.
It is possible and to transfer in the opposite direction focus – from a background regarding shooting, but it is not obligatory to do it when shooting, it can be made at installation. By the way, why it is convenient guide originally sharpness regarding shooting? And everything is simple! It is where is closer, than a background, therefore, sharpness depth there much less, than in the distance that leads to difficulties when focusing. You can simply miss and not get to focus that will spoil all effect. But not to get with focus on a background is it is necessary to try. I.e. you in quiet conditions, without having included record yet, guided sharpness regarding, and then transfer to a background. This reception well allocates objects and forces the viewer to watch focus.
It is very convenient at such shooting a support!
And, at last, in the conclusion about plans I will tell – favourably to use the small depth of sharply represented space (DSRS) not only when shooting architecture, landscapes, but also portraits. It well allocates and separates object of shooting on the general background. When all in sharpness, the picture looks a little flat and a human eye cannot excrete on it "highlight".

Manual control of an exposition

And now we will talk about when manual settings of an exposition are useful to us. Actually electronics of a modern chamber in most cases quite correctly establishes an exposition, but here if it is required to create any effect, it is necessary to adjust manually.
As a rule, almost all chambers allow to set parameters of endurance and a diaphragm manually. From the practical point of view change of a diaphragm is most often demanded. It as we remember, also influences sharpness depth. The more the diaphragm is open, the it is less than GRIP that most is suitable for focus translation reception, for example.
If it is necessary to create effect of evening or even night in the afternoon, for example, that is required to zadiafragmirovat more strongly a lens (to cover a diaphragm, to increase f 1 number / *). The same reception can use for receiving "game" of patches of light from the sun on a water surface.
Manipulations with endurance will be required to you at video filming of moving objects. That the moving object became accurate, it is required to make endurance shorter. Let's remember that endurance 1/100 with well, than 1/50 pages. And to emphasize the movement it is necessary to make, on the contrary, endurance longer. However it is more difficult to hold a chamber on long excerpts, perhaps, the support will be required.
It should be noted that having entered the manual mode, automatic equipment can cease to operate an exposition, and, maybe, and is not present, looking what algorithm is used – consider it.
Time the speech about manual settings of an exposition came, it is possible to remember about one moment – balance white.

Control of balance white

Основы видеосъемки What is the balance white, likely, all know, we even spoke about it already for a long time in article about the photo therefore I will repeat only an essence. The balance of the white is necessary for correct display of white color. White can be "warm", i.e. with a shade yellow; "cold", i.e. with a shade blue and "neutral", i.e. correct.
Automatic equipment of modern chambers, as a rule, quite correctly copes with an objective, but, as they say, even the wisest of us can make a mistake. Difficulties can arise when shooting in the light of glow lamps or, on the contrary, luminescent lamps, but the greatest difficulties come when light is mixed with street lighting. Then appears raznotsvety since the chamber made balance only on one source (windows through which street light arrives, it does not notice, since a balance sensor very rough). How to avoid it? At once I will tell that it is, etc. better not to use presets like "daylight", "luminescent lamps". As practice shows, I pound from them very little since the result turns out very mediocre. We are interested in completely manual balance.
It becomes so. We take purely clean sheet of A4 paper, and we put it in a place where the mixed light is observed. We choose manual balance white and we adjust it manually on this leaf so that only the leaf and anything Bol came into the view! If the color subject gets – everything will be spoiled.

Summarizing told above, I can open common truth – experience comes over time. But for this purpose it is necessary to realize not simply the fact of existence of a chamber and to read the theory, and to remove as much as possible, and then impartially to estimate result that turned out that is not present as to correct it. It is possible and even it is necessary to show the shootings to relatives, as a rule, from outside it is visible to friends better, and the assessment is more objective. That a sin to conceal – it is difficult to criticize himself.
Successful to you shootings!
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