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Techniques of trainings on track and field athletics

Once before parents there is a choice: whether to send the child to sport, and if an affirmative answer – that to what sport. If you think of that your child grew up healthy and comprehensively developed and besides could earn quite good money (and to drive about on the international competitions), his way over time – a way to track and field athletics.
Once before parents there is a choice: whether to send the child to sport, and if an affirmative answer – that to what sport. Let's assume, soccer or hockey – they will provide to your son stable (sometimes huge) earnings – but lucky there will be units, and those who will not settle in club of the second league who will be traumatized and will be forever given up professional sport – the majority. If you think of that your child grew up healthy and comprehensively developed and besides could earn quite good money (and to drive about on the international competitions), his way over time – a way to track and field athletics. pays your attention that it is possible to be engaged in track and field athletics for itself, developing and improving a body (thus it is possible to find not less time for education), it is possible to be engaged professionally (it besides will not be reflected in study – and at possible "excesses" in the future you will have the plan of B). In a word, pluses obviously outweigh in favor of this sport.

General information about approaches to track and field athletics trainings

Officially track and field athletics includes 5 sports: in daily occurrence we speak about track and field athletics as about set of run and long jumps, excepting all-round and pusher types. Besides, in the last decade in certain regions of Russia the peak of popularity is endured by sports walking.
For children of school age track and field athletics is, first of all, run. Differently prepare for competitions at open stadiums and in arenas. recommends to begin with export of the child on noncommercial competitions plus competitions to the status "not competitive" like "Cross-country of the nations", "The All-Russian day of run" … And it is necessary to put since the childhood both the physical, and tactical base. Your child has to understand accurately that to him is closer – to run away or catch up, sit out behind backs of rivals all distance and to give all the best only on the finish or all running to combat for a place in the leading group and to lead a peloton. However, it already the trainer's duty – to teach the child to decompose competently forces on a distance, to make out in it the finisher or tactics which is surely distributing forces on a distance. Since 5-6 years your child has to understand that such run and to choose specialization – short or long distances. Sprint demands absolutely other approach to training process, than, for example, run on 400 meters or working off of long distances. Besides, it is very important to pick up the trainer, "your" trainer who is ideally suited for your child, frequent change of trainers – very painful phenomenon for the young athlete when it for short periods has to change approach to trainings. Consequences: injuries, a distortion towards tactics or physics, loss of confidence and psychological failures at competitions, loss of muscle bulk, a long rastrenirovannost, full loss of a form …
It is necessary to distinguish interval approach to training and not interval. At interval approach it is possible to train equally both sprint (short), and stayersky (long) distances. An essence of interval training in that from long pieces gradually to pass to short (all this for one training): for example, half an hour to give all the best on 4 km, twenty minutes to run 2 more km, ten minutes to give to slow run on 1 km, then to spread out these ten minutes to two pieces on 500 m, further to master in this way 200 and 100 m. Training is ideal both physically, and tactically, not interval approach develops at the athlete only endurance. That physical foundation which you lay for one training by method of intervals, you will be able to acquire for 4-5 trainings on "endurance". Following a method of interval training, do a discount for one thing: it is not necessary to give all the best on some of distance sites, a method of intervals at all – for run by "your" equal speed, here the rhythm of run and a distance work for you, but not you for them as it happens in a case to trainings on wear. In intervals between intervals anybody, naturally, will not allow to walk to you on foot or to have a rest in a shadow: you continue run, only at a slow rate.
Some trainers pay to pulse rate too much attention. You only should remember that at similar interval trainings the frequency of blows should not exceed three in a second. Working in an arena, you can train with success an interval distance of 200 m (considering that track length in an arena such), it is possible to do to 40 repetitions for training, alternating active sites with passive run. Consider that in the winter in an indoor stadium it is possible to train successfully sprint distances: interval trainings will go to 100 and 200 m. Those who only starts being engaged in similar working off or rather young athletes can do passive breaks up to one minute (for well trained athlete a passive piece – half-minute and less). If work a distance twice well, i.e. 100 m, add about a quarter of minute to the specified results.
Some trainers adhere to a method of contrast training when still start training absolutely young athlete in initially contrast conditions. If you start forming the physical base in the winter – be sure that you will easily finish with rivals at competitions in the summer. I.e. during the spring and summer the athlete should not regain a physical form but only to support and correct stages of trainings. Contrast conditions are cross-countries in the winter, addition of ski trainings, and with arrival of spring – and driving on roller skis. But you should not be overzealous – differently the retired athlete all active season will get off on form failures. The ideal number of winter training days in a week – 4, summer – 5, when approaching to competitions is only a day given to athletes in a week. Thus in day it can be carried out to 4 trainings – taking into account the 1-2nd in the sparing mode. It should be taken into account also that fact that the sprinter can place, of course, small emphasis on cross-countries, but only not during the winter period.
Let's stop and on a question of time shortly before training. The extension of muscles is certainly very important, but only in that case, a fir-tree you warmed previously a body unostentatious run within 15-20 minutes. Let's pay attention and to that fact that any static exercises before track and field athletics training – risk of a trauma, do as much as possible exercises in dynamics, disperse blood, approach occupation with the burning cheeks. insistently advises parents who see the child in big-time sports, at once to give it on care of the trainer, it is best of all – personal. However, to personal it will grow, having become the professional, but it is necessary to have the mentor at early age – to make the training plan and was able smooth the periods of recession of a form only the person with vocational education can.

Professional and amateur approach to track and field athletics trainings

You have to know from the very beginning – to send the child to professional or especially amateur sport. Money and medals or simply medals plus an excellent physical state till the old age in both cases. Parents have to make an accurate choice: professional approach demands much more time, found for sport. Besides, it is necessary to enclose in the professional athlete much more money, considering costs of a form, healthy nutrition, trips of bigger number of competitions.
Pay attention and to that fact that the professional spends much more time for the trainings bringing to competitions. It is necessary to approach especially responsible starts, having half-month baggage of continuous trainings. And if you train a certain, "" distance, in the emphasis bringing the period is placed only on it (then training includes warm-up run: 1-1,5 hours, plus run on the distance taking into account the maximum time, plus run with the maximum speed on a limit distance, i.e. how many will be able, plus warm-up run after training – 20-30 minutes).
Professionals have also a special balanced training: run on a limit of forces (the maximum pieces of acceleration in interval run), the tempo restoring run plus exercises on development of muscles, inflating of a press, i.e. a complex of power exercises.
Contrast trainings are of great importance for the professional: here refusal for the period of trainings of a special form, intended weighting of footwear, frequent use of shipovka at short distances can enter, run on the unprepared district – achieving result in such conditions, the athlete will sharply add in ideal conditions of competitions.
Placing emphasis that the professional has to have the personal trainer, warns that the athlete in itself in rare instances can control interval loading: growth of number of repetitions on a limit of forces and reduction of duration of pauses – a prerogative of the trainer and his plan, but not the young athlete. It is correct to plan training process, we will repeat, only the qualified specialist can.
For sharpening of track and field athletics skills and continuous maintenance of a form at early age often advise athletes to place emphasis on poliathlon. Power exercises (a press + pulling up), coordination exercises (firing from a rifle) plus runs/skis – ideal filling of training and competitive life of the athlete during the whole year. In the rural areas often deprived of arenas and special conditions for trainings resort to poliathlon as to panacea. Besides a variety in the athlete-athlete's life – quite rare thing, and here it is available.
At the professional athlete, considering 4-6 hours of trainings a day, there has to be also a special power training.
As warm-up and interval pieces during the main training of group of athletes are used as unloading relay occupations. Though it is absolutely optional to athlete to be able to work in team – after all a sport not command.

Recommendations to the young athletes and parents sending the child to track and field athletics

Parents have to be defined, in track and field athletics, what of types, to give the child when to him is years 5-6. In case fermentation from a look in a look begins, always there is a spare option – track and field athletics all-round. Having enough skills and solid baggage of trainings, the young athlete will definitely not get lost in this look. If you initially place emphasis on sprint as the most popular and spectacular type of track and field athletics then warns you: if your child ceases to progress in this look to years to 11 and growth of results it will not be visible, perhaps, it is worth replacing a distance with the stayersky. Pay attention to physical data of the child: let's allow, in 7-8 years he not bad runs short distances, and to 12 he strengthened growth – build already obviously not sprint – hurry to retrain him in the jumper, he will achieve results there, than in sprint more likely.
If the child chooses a way of the stayer, it is worth warning: it is necessary to perform the enormous volume of draft work. Adequately to feel at a distance of 5000 m at the international level, it will be necessary to fulfill every day during 3-4 trainings the 30-40-kilometer volume of run (it on the way by 16-20 years, at children's age indicators in two and three times are less). Will become quite widespread for you even on the weekend of jog on the wood or on park on 12-15 km during which you have the right to devastate a polutoralitrovy bottle of the sugared water.
The wrong approach consists in that there is as much as possible time to find for traveling on competitions and to leave as much as possible forces on commercial starts. To the young athlete it absolutely to anything: differences of a form at early age are so frequent, what even surplus of impressions of new places will not help business. Your child will quickly turn into passive "participant", but not the prize-winner of competitions and his physical growth will be undermined. Therefore years to 16 it is important to place emphasis on training part, on a set of a form and working off of skills. Having become the professional, your child can already devote himself to commercial starts, and to this age it is necessary to seek for progress, but not to a pozhim of fruits.
Pay attention and at that time that the stayer should not work only stayersky distances on trainings, it will be useful for it to run about and with sprinters – large volumes of slow run, it is more similar to walking, rastrenirovyvat the athlete and conduct to fading of a form then of any peaks and results it is already not necessary to think.
The sprinter ability perfectly to start, defines the stayer – ability to give out an impressive finishing piece. Certain trainers train the athletes to finish even slightly further a finishing cut-off.

Detailed description of approaches to trainings

The American school of track and field athletics is considered world's leading. Training process in the States is usually divided into three stages (it is about professional approach): during the out of competition period from September till beginning of winter there is a working off of equipment and a laying of the main skills for beginners. The training groups of young athletes since 5-6 years start training physical skills, to give all the best on training for hundred percent (here it is only necessary not to be overzealous and not to beat off desire to trainings for the rest of life), from 9-10 years – a total emphasis on technology of run which had to be fulfilled and be acquired from 5 to 9 years, after 11 – improvement of skills, increase in volumes of trainings. During the three-four-months preparatory period the athlete varies approach to trainings, but emphasis is put the rigid – to execute the enormous volume of work that by the competitive period to have solid base. During the preparatory period it is possible to resort to technique " ladder" trainings, like the ladders method at pullings up – from the minimum value to maximum and back to minimum, including warm-up and posttraining speak rapidly.
After Christmas holidays the "ladder" technique by which the athlete is checked for durability is usually reduced, there comes time of working off of the main distance for which the athlete and is intended. At some trainers this period concerns only calendar winter, at some extends to the middle of spring. And it is optional to allow a competitive spirit on trainings: the athlete has to struggle only with himself and with the time for distances. Final months of trainings and an exit to peak of a form occur up to the middle of summer. At interval approach time spent for rest between the fulfilled pieces increases here. It will be useful to notice that it is useful for trainer to enter power exercises into this period: for example, jumps with the ball put for shoulders filled by sand. In general, it is necessary to load feet and to prepare them for the high-speed drive of competitions, for a wear limit. Thus trainings of this kind look positive: within an hour - two group of athletes trains rises and descents in the hilly district. And the more rises – the better for working off of equipment of the athlete and endurance, especially if rises take place in high-speed speed. On similar hour training it is required to execute not less than 12 pair rises descents, all this is in group with constantly changing leader.
According to one more American approach, it is necessary to lay the foundation in the fall under quite bad conditions of trainings, a "ladder" method to fulfill in the winter, and in the spring-summer to undertake the main distances. And the preparatory period can consist of frequent power trainings plus cross-countries (irrespective of sprint / stayerskoy the athlete's orientations).
Sometimes athletes apply the principle of two times training: the strengthened occupation in the morning including hours-long run (with alternation of types of run: smooth, a jog trot, with pieces of accelerations, constant on a limit of forces, warm-up) plus evening, including walking with insignificant inserts of accelerations plus control cross-country. If there is an opportunity, alternate days when you are engaged in run at stadium, with days when you do it in the park district or the district with a large number of hills, i.e. place emphasis on working off of rises. Intensive week trainings with accurately painted schedule and under continuous supervision of the personal trainer should be conducted only since 16-18 years when the organism approaches balance peak. Before – frequent trainings in group, accumulation of muscle bulk, attempt to come to a limit of results.
Even if trainings replace one another, there is a preparation for important starts, the week employment cycle is used – even thus time in 10-12 days is required to give to athletes 1 day of unloading and rest or during couple of days to give them the facilitated tasks.

Transition from youthful sport to the adult

Your child, having reached 15-18 years, has to solve: whether he will play professional sports further, whether will connect with it the life till 30-35 years.
For painless transition to adult sport it is required to be engaged and compete with athletes of more age categories every year successfully.
At competitions it is necessary to place emphasis on the main distance, but you should not pay it all attention. It is possible to test in as it is possible bigger number of starts for one competition. Only then the athlete will understand borders of the forces and opportunities, will competently estimate the potential.
It is necessary to start competitions at the adult level in the sparing mode: carefully, to exclude risk of receiving a trauma on which all your subsequent sports career can break. pays your attention that to the professional athlete not to do without the qualified personal trainer. Besides the equipment of the athlete has to be the best – for participation in the international starts on which the athlete can make the name.
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