In this article InfoAdvisor.net will consider the sewerage device in the private house. Already nobody imagines the modern house without hot and cold water supply, a convenient toilet, , and . The sewerage has to provide outflow of the used water and fecal waste.
In an ideal the scheme of the sewerage needs to be thought over even prior to construction of the house, but it is necessary to design the sewerage already in the ready house more often. Work on the sewerage device in the private house is quite feasible even for the person who was never engaged in professional construction. System effectiveness of the sewerage more depends on observance of elementary laws of physics. And even if you will use services of experts, InfoAdvisor.net recommends to study in detail and scrupulously a question to have opportunity to control their work.
The system of the sewerage in the private house most often has only 3 elements:
- internal distributing from the sanitary equipment;
- vent pipe;
- the septic tank representing a sealed container for collecting and upholding of the polluted waters.
Such system is the most convenient and simple in service.
Types of septic tanks
Cesspool. The most ancient and simple option of the sewerage for the private house is a cesspool. Of course, it not a septic tank, and more likely prototype of a modern septic tank. Nevertheless, use of a cesspool is justified if you come to a country house not often respectively, the water consumption is not great. Use of cesspools of 2 types practices: a cesspool without bottom and the tight store.
First option. The cesspool without bottom though seems very simple device, however use of such construction has too many minuses. First, a constant unpleasant smell, secondly, obvious pollution of underground waters, thirdly, need to clean a cesspool.
Tight store. Without bottom differs from a cesspool in that sewage does not get to environment and do not pollute it. Easy to establish such septic tank store, but here operation of such septic tank is not always convenient. Especially if the family lives in the house constantly if a lot of water is consumed. Such septic tank will be often filled and as only the assenizatorsky car can pump out water from a tight septic tank, annoying interruptions in work of sewer system are possible. After all not always assenizatorsky services work smoothly and leave on demand.
Septic tank with soil tertiary treatment of sewage. Such septic tank has at least 2 chambers, but maybe it is more. Water purification happens in 2 stages. At first sewage comes to the first chamber where there is primary upholding. All large particles settle on a bottom which in the first capacity has to be concreted. After that partially cleared waters flow in the following compartments of a septic tank where there is a further cleaning, carry out which anaerobic bacteria. Purification of waters in the soil comes to the end. Such device of a septic tank very conveniently at continuous accommodation in the private house as allows to have the sufficient volume of a septic tank, and also services of assenizatorsky service can use 2–3 times a year, not more often.
Unfortunately, such septic tank does not work at a site with the clay soil, and also in places, where the high level of ground waters.
The septic tank with deep extent of biological cleaning represents the whole treatment plant. Clarification of sewage happens in some stages. After primary filtration of water pass biological cleaning with aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Sometimes for work of such septic tank it is required special devices for production of oxygen. Such septic tank allows to carry out water purification for 90%. Water after cleaning can be used for technical needs, on watering of plants, or is merged in a natural reservoir without prejudice to ecology.
The cost of such treatment plants is quite high, but expenses on the device of the thought-over sewerage will allow to solve a problem with water drainage once and for all. Especially it is important if the capital house for a big family is under construction.
That it is necessary to consider at a septic tank choice
Septic tanks can be made of various materials. Most often it is ferroconcrete rings, metal, a brick, plastic and fibreglass. Certainly, each material has the features. For example, installation of ferroconcrete rings demands powerful equipment – the excavator and the truck crane, but reinforced concrete strong material, is not subject to mechanical corrosion. Plastic easy that simplifies installation, but the mechanical damages caused by soil squeezing are not excluded. For a frigid climate more suitable experts consider a septic tank from concrete. The metal or plastic septic tank is good for regions with warm climate. The advantage of plastic septic tanks is that it is simple to dismantle a septic tank and to transfer it to a new place.
Septic tanks and on an arrangement of capacities differ. If on your site ground waters settle down too close to a surface, you will suit a horizontal arrangement of capacity of a septic tank. The septic tank will remind partially earthed tank. The vertical septic tank will occupy less than an area, but depth of a ditch will be rather big.
To make a right choice, it is necessary to calculate septic tank volume correctly. It must be kept in mind that the volume of capacity of a septic tank has to contain waters at least three times more, than it is supposed to spend per day. If the septic tank is established for the small country house where you will have a rest on the weekend, it is possible to choose a septic tank store. It is cheap and simple, but it is necessary to pump out water in process of filling. For continuous accommodation in the house it is reasonable to establish septic tanks with soil tertiary treatment and if features of soil do not allow, to use septic tanks with deep biological cleaning.
It is very important to decide correctly and on a septic tank site. On norms the septic tank has to settle down not less, than 50 m from a water intake (a well or a well). Observance of this rule it is directed on protection of our health! If the septic tank demands periodic pumping, it is necessary to have it in a place, available to an entrance of the assenizatorsky car. From the house a septic tank it is possible to have at distance of 5-20 m.
Internal distributing and vent pipe
When the septic tank is established, consider that the main part of work on the device of the sewerage is executed. It is necessary to make internal distributing in the house and to connect all pipes to a vent pipe.
Most of all plastic pipes are suitable for internal distributing. They easily unite among themselves to the help of a fitting. If in the house some floors, are required installation of struts. Sinks and a bathroom can be connected to pipes with a diameter of 50 mm. A toilet bowl to a pipe of 100 mm in the diameter. It is very important to observe the correct bias ranging from 20 to 25 mm on meter.
The vent pipe has to surpass in the diameter of a pipe of internal distributing. It is possible to use pig-iron or asbestotsementovy pipes, but pipes plastic are more often used. The vent pipe is removed in an opening in the base which needs to be made obviously bigger, than diameter pipe. That the base at shrinkage did not crush a pipe. Laying a vent pipe it is necessary to observe very attentively a bias, differently there will be zasor in the sewerage. It is recommended to observe a bias of 20 mm on meter. Trench depth for a vent pipe pays off depending on extent of frost penetration in soil. There can be 0,7 m in places where soil not strongly freezes through. In northern regions it is expedient to bury a pipe to 1,5 m.
When everything is ready, trial start-up of sewer system is carried out. If everything is made correctly, the sewer system will serve 50 and more years.