To everyone familiarly joyful revival of spring day or drowsiness of rainy evening. This not so casual mood, influences our behavior and, partly, health a lot of the most various factors of an environment.
All live is subject to influence of circadian rhythms – the physiological cycles of activity and rest based on time of day and years. Many indispositions and simply psychological discomfort can result from violation of the mode of life put in us by the nature. Work in a night-time will be least effective, the dream in the light will not give good rest.
There are many signs on which we, more precisely, our organism, defines, than now to be engaged more effectively. One of the most important – lighting.
How many light is necessary to us?
First of all we estimate lighting according to its quantitative characteristic called illumination. Illumination shows, how many light from a source gets on a surface. In physics this size is measured in luxury.
To understand that I mean these sizes for the person, it is possible only in comparison. Illumination 1 luxury is a twilight at which letters hardly differ, the 500th luxury is a lighting under a desk lamp of an incandescence with a power of 100 Watts.
Illumination for "working" mood 500-1000 luxury. 1 luxury turns out at a light stream in 1 lumen on the area of 1 square meter. That is for illumination of a desktop of a desktop by the square about square meter we need a light source not less than the 500th lumen.
For an approximate assessment of illumination it is possible to use such values:
- the glow lamp in the lamp with a reflector gives near the 10th lumen on Watt:
- the luminescent lamp in the lamp with a reflector gives near the 50th lumen on Watt.
That is for illumination of a table we will need a desk lamp with the glow lamp with power not less than 60 Watts or the 10 Watts fluorescent lamp. Calculation is simple – to increase luminous efficiency by the power of a lamp and to divide into the lit square.
What light is better?
The most difficult – to be defined that, actually, means "better". Besides illumination there are two other, not less important characteristics.
The color rendition shows, how truly at this lighting a human eye will estimate color in comparison with natural lighting. The majority of household illuminants have a color rendition close to maximum, that is slightly less than hundred. At the same time any lamp displaces perception from natural, for example, fluorescent lamps, as a rule, give more blue shade. For some paints and natural stones the unexpected effect is possible absolutely: the stone, blue at a sunlight, can be violet at artificial.
Color temperature is the size showing, to what temperature it is necessary to heat absolutely black body that it started radiating light similar to the described. This size is at first sight too abstract, however has very important practical value.
Even without seeing a light source, we definitely perceive a situation. Light of fire in a fireplace will give at once to the room the atmosphere of homeliness, a fluorescent lamp, opposite will make impression of a workplace.
Color temperature allows to correlate lighting to some natural light source. Our organism will react to it respectively – will be adjusted on rest or activity. Here some examples of color temperature:
- 1500-2000 To – light of a flame;
- 3400 To – the sun at the horizon (dawn or a decline);
- 4300-4500 K – the morning sun and the sun in lunch time;
- 5000 To – the sun at midday;
- 7500 To – a daylight, mixture solar and light from the blue sky;
- 15 000 To – the clear blue sky in the winter.
The lighting which is picked up not only on brightness, but also on degree of a color rendition and temperature will be the most optimum: the soft light similar on color temperature to a flame, perfectly will be suitable for a romantic dinner, bright light of the midday sun is good for work.
Let's carry out the small review of lighting sources available to us.The glow lamp
— the first that comes to mind when pronouncing the word "lighting". It is the most ancient mass source of electric lighting.
The main minus of the glow lamp is its efficiency. Only 2-4 percent of its power are spent for lighting, all other goes for heating.
Despite it, glow lamps are very widespread because of the price and successful properties of lighting, they have light very close to solar less than other lamps cause fatigue of eyes.Halogen lamps
are subspecies of glow lamps and possess exactly the same properties. They are 2-5 percent more effective, have colder light, is more compact at the same power, however work at much more high temperature because of what are very exacting to purity of glass.Luminescent lamps
are more widespread as illumination of a workplace. They are 5-10 times more effective than glow lamps. Their most essential shortcoming is a lack of a lag effect, that is at all differences of tension in a network the lamp sharply reduces or increases a light stream. At first sight, it is not so important, however remember that in the socket at us alternating current, so the lamp does not shine with equal light, and flickers. Because of this property of a fluorescent lamp cause fatigue of eyes more strongly.
But everything is not so bad. First, in daylight lamps usually costs 2 or 4 lamps which are connected so that to compensate effect of a stroboscope. Secondly, in modern lamps the electronic converters leveling tension and, therefore, light of the lamp are used.
So-called energy saving lamps are the same luminescent lamps which are simply very compactly executed and combined with electronics in one case.
In recent years in life LED lighting
starts being used actively. Today, with some reservations, it is one of the most effective light sources.
Nevertheless LED sources of lighting have a number of shortcomings. The most main – they are significantly dearer than all other. The price consists of the cost of the power supply and, strongly depending on power, from the cost of diodes.
It is possible to find rather cheap LED lamps in sale, however in them there can be low-quality power supplies that will lead to their fast breakage. Also low price can be caused by poor quality of light-emitting diodes or heat-removing elements. It can lead over time to loss of brightness (to 30 percent in a year) or to full burning out.
In the Russian realities LED lighting is inefficient if you, of course, do not possess sufficient skills for its assembly from scratch from radio components. The matter is that really reliable LED device costs about one thousand rubles and the term of its payback makes about five years. Thus there are no guarantees that he will work these five years in our power supply networks where at unsuccessful combination of circumstances tension can jump for thirty percent in both parties within one minute.
For illumination of big spaces mercury and sodium lamps are used. Mercury are often used for lighting of the yards, they shine with cold this world. Sodium lamps are, as a rule, applied in lamps of street lighting, they shine with warm orange light.
It is clear that in the house such lamps could not be applied, however they can be useful at illumination of a parking or workshop. At these lamps the highest luminous efficiency, but long time of ignition. They should be applied where bright, long time not switching off lighting is required.
Very specific lighting can sometimes be demanded. The purposes can be decorative or economic, but, anyway, the couple of words should be told about it.
You could meet in discos or an exhibition the ultra-violet illumination forcing to shine in the dark white things. This effect is caused by that an ultraviolet being reflected from some surfaces turns into visible light.
The ultraviolet is created by Wood's lamps called also by lamps of black light
. They exist in all standard sizes and usually there are available in all large shops electricians.
Such lighting successfully will be suitable for registration of a house party, but there is one unpleasant moment. A human eye does not catch an ultraviolet and the pupil does not react to brightness of this component of light. For certain you happened to face eye pain at an exit from the dark room under a bright sunlight, it is caused by that so far the pupil did not manage to contract, on a retina too much light gets. In the dark room pupils are expanded and the dark light can cause strong fatigue of eyes.Bactericidal or quartz lamps
also shine in the ultra-violet range, but give more rigid ultraviolet. In difference from Wood's lamps, bactericidal lamps can kill microorganisms.
Light of quartz lamps is much more dangerous to eyes and even to skin so when using by them it is necessary to observe instructions of the producer. Except actually bactericidal action these lamps in the course of work ozonize air that is not so good. Ozone even in insignificant concentration can be toxic therefore after work of a bactericidal lamp it is recommended to air the room.
One more is unusual a lamp which can be useful in life, it is a so-called phytolamp
. Its light is picked up in such a way that is most effectively used by plants for oxygen synthesis. Especially well this effect is swept up in an aquarium, seaweed can breathe so actively that from leaves chains of tiny bubbles run.
Also phytolamps noticeably accelerate growth of seedling and are preferable to use in a hydroponics.
By the principle of action the phytolamp is luminescent.
And, perhaps, the most unusual lamp – infrared
. As a matter of fact, it is the glow lamp with the reflector and special glass passing infrared radiation and filtering the most part of visible light.
Singularity in that it not the illuminant, and heating. Because heat is transferred by radiation, the surface, but not air that has a number of advantages heats up.
The main application of these lamps – medical. Infrared radiation allows to create the compact centers of heat in the right place without costs of warming up of all room. It can be useful for warming up of sick parts of a body, for example, of the "blown" neck or a waist, and also for heating of a little table for swaddling of the child.
Besides, it is possible to apply infrared light to heating of thermophilic domestic pets, for example, of turtles or other reptiles.
Perhaps, you need to assemble a certain non-standard lamp or it is simply a pity to spend spare cash for illumination of garage. It is clear that with glow lamps of problems should not arise, and with the luminescent there can be difficulties. Let's begin one after another.
Lamps like LB and their analogs (glass tubes, on two contacts from end faces) have to be connected via the pusko-regulating device. If it electronic, connection very simple – to put on special contacts a lamp and to give tension on the device.
For electromagnetic connection is slightly more difficult, it is necessary to insert a starter, the special device into a chain necessary for ignition of the category in a lamp. Upon purchase of the pusko-regulating device (throttle) and starters consider that they have to correspond to the power of a lamp or if you connect two lamps consistently, the starter has to correspond to lamp face value, and the throttle to be twice more powerful.
Lamps of DRL it is connected consistently with a throttle.
DNAT are also connected consistently with a throttle, but also parallel connection of the pulse incendiary device is required.