How to choose polyvitamins, ch.2
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How to choose polyvitamins, ch.2

In this material the importance of this or that element for the person is considered. We hope, to our readers the understanding of that it is not necessary to select independently the specialized vitamin complexes appointed in the medical purposes to elderly people, and also people with deviations in work of cardiovascular system, in sight work, etc. will come.
Поливитамины In the first part of article about polyvitamins we spoke about those general principles by which it is necessary to be guided at selection of polyvitaminic complexes for the purpose of prevention. Throughout correctly will be to tell about the importance of this or that element for the person. We hope that with this article to our readers the understanding of that it is not necessary to select independently the specialized vitamin complexes appointed in the medical purposes to elderly people, and also people with deviations in work of cardiovascular system, in sight work, etc. will come. Only in case you want to improve the general condition of hair, nails, it is possible to rely on the knowledge, and nevertheless, consultation with the doctor will be only on advantage.

Impact of vitamins and minerals on an organism

Vitamins (from Latinas. vita — life) are organic substances, formed in an organism or arriving with food in very insignificant quantities, but absolutely necessary for providing a normal metabolism and activity.
Витамины поступают в организм с растительной и животной пищей In 1956 the uniform classification of vitamins which became common was accepted. On it all vitamins share on 2 groups:
  • fat-soluble vitamins: (And, D, E, K);
  • water-soluble vitamins: (B1, B2, pantothenic acid, B6, B12, folat, With, niatsin, biotin).
Vitamins come to an organism with vegetable and animal food. Getting through a gastrointestinal tract wall, they form numerous derivatives which in connection with proteins form the enzymes which are taking part in a metabolism. That is vitamins or are a part of enzymes, or are components of fermentativny reactions.
Shortage of vitamins weakens an organism, absence breaks activity of fermental systems in which they participate that leads to a metabolic disorder and, as a result, a serious illness. Also overdose of vitamins which can be caused as the excessive use of the products containing high doses of vitamins, and uncontrolled reception of vitaminous preparations is harmful. Therefore it is very important to know, what impact is made by various vitamins on our organism, in what types of food they contain and as the shortcoming (gipovitaminoz) or excess (gipervitaminoz) of this or that vitamin is shown.

VitaminSources / daily normGipovitaminozGipervitaminoz
Water-soluble vitamins
B1 tiamin Is necessary for work of nervous system, a digestive tract, a liver, heart. Participates in a metabolism, first of all – carbohydrate. Helps at treatment of diseases of skinBean (peas, haricot), grain (oats, buckwheat), nuts (a filbert, a walnut, almonds), the crude grain, yeast, products from a flour of a rough grinding, pork of 1,3-1,5 mg for adults, 0,3-1 mg for childrenHeadache, memory violation, sleeplessness, increased fatigue, coordination deterioration; short wind, hypotonia, tachycardia, appetite deterioration, nausea, belly-aches, locks, weight reduction. At avitaminosis: beriberi illness (defeat of nervous system, heart, hypostases and general exhaustion)  Allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock, tremor, vomiting, small tortoiseshell, falling of arterial pressure; at long overdose dysfunction of a liver and kidneys  
B2 Riboflavinum Provides updating and restoration of skin, mucous membranes of an internal. Prevents development of a cataract. Eliminates negative impact of toxic substances on respiratory organsLiver, veal, fish, cottage cheese, cheese, eggs, milk, sour cream, kefir; grain (pearl-barley, buckwheat, oat), green peas, yeast, spinach, potatoes, a cauliflower For adult 1,5-1,8 mg, for children: 0,4-1,2 mgAppetite deterioration, weakness, headache, violation of twilight sight, gripes in eyes, cracks and a peeling in mouth corners, an inflammation of language and a mouth, seboreyny dermatitis round a mouth, in nosogubny folds, on nose wings, anemia  Violation of work of kidneys
B5 pantothenic acid Promotes "burning" of fats and development of energy. It is necessary for immunity, nervous system, blood formation. Helps healing of wounds, stimulates activity of intestinesLiver, kidneys, egg yolks, fish and dairy products; peas, yeast, nuts, grain (buckwheat, oat), green sheet vegetables, a cauliflower for adults about 4-7 mg, for children – 2-5 mgFatigue, increased fatigue, drowsiness, nausea, frequent ORZ, sleep, fingers standing, dermatitis, emergence of white spots on skin  Heartburn, nausea, vomiting
B6 a pyridoxine Participates in a proteinaceous and fatty exchange, normalizes work of nervous system. Reduces cholesterol level. Improves work of heart, stimulates blood formationBeef, pork, mutton, milk, cheese, egg yolk, fish (a salmon, a Siberian salmon), grain (buckwheat, millet), wheat flour, potatoes, a cauliflower, carrots, yeast, soy, bananas About 2 mg for adults and 0,3-1,4 mg for childrenIncreased fatigue, sleeplessness, dermatitis and stomatitises, cracks of lips; appetite deterioration, dyspepsia; anemia at children  The small tortoiseshell, violation of blood circulation in extremities, formation of blood clots, increase of coagulability of blood  
B12 cyanocobalamine Participates in cell fission (blood, immune cages, cells of skin and cells of a mucous membrane of intestines). It is necessary for immunity, work of a brain, reproductive system. Normalizes low pressure.  Only products of an animal origin: a liver, kidneys, meat, fish (a herring, a tuna), milk, cottage cheese, eggs, cheese, seafood of 2 mkg for adults, 0,3-1,4 mkg for childrenDigestion, stomach ulcer of a stomach and duodenum is broken; headaches, drowsiness; violations of memory and sight; heavy anemia  Allergic reactions: the small tortoiseshell, Kvinke swelled; thrombosis of peripheral vessels, heart failure
Bs Folic acid Is necessary for blood formation, maintenance of psychological balance, immunity, digestion. Prevents development of pre-natal defects during pregnancy  Flour of a rough grinding, green vegetables (cabbage, parsley, salad, onions), bean (peas, haricot, soy), yeast, carrots, cereals, oat and buckwheat grain; a liver, kidneys, meat, chicken, cottage cheese, cheese, an egg yolk For adult 0,15-0,2 mg, for pregnant 0,4-0,6 mg, for children of 0,025-0,1 mgAnemia, atrophy mucous gastrointestinal tract and airways, fruit malformations, premature birth  Dyspepsia at children, excitement of TsNS
With ascorbic acid It is necessary for health of vessels. Improves blood formation, has anti-inflammatory effect. Increases recovery abilities of an organism  Citrus, green vegetables (onions, cabbage, broccoli), paprika, blackcurrant, mountain ash, apples, sea-buckthorn, dogrose, parsley, sorrel, nettle, horse-radish, plantain, etc. herbs; it is a little in a liver and kidneys 60 mg a day for adults, for children – 30-45 mgDecrease in immunity, frequent infectious diseases, bleeding of gums, joint painsIncrease of coagulability of blood, heartburn, stones in kidneys, increase of sugar in blood
RR niatsin Exists in forms: nicotinic acid and nikotinamid. Activates brain activity, digestion, a zhelcheotdeleniye. Prevents development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Nikotinamid reduces pains at arthritis  Meat, liver, kidneys and heart, fish, eggs, cheese; potatoes, green peas, tomatoes, pepper, cabbage, grain (especially buckwheat), bean, a peanut, whole grain, beer yeast, mushrooms About 20 mg for adults, for children – 5-12 mg  Extremity pains, decrease of the content of sugar in blood, cracks and inflammations of skin, muscular weakness At avitaminosis: illness of a pellagr (dermatitis, diarrhea, violations of mentality)  Reddening of face skin, neck, hands and breast and feeling of heat; heartbeat, lowering of blood pressure, increase of level of sugar in blood, urticaria, dizziness
The N biotin Helps digestion of glucose, reduces the content of sugar in blood, helps digestion of protein and burning of fat, improves a condition of nervous system. It is necessary for skin, growth of hair and nailsYeast, bean, mushrooms, green onions, color and white cabbage, flour of a rough grinding; a liver, an egg yolk, milk For adults about 0,1 mg, for children of 0,01-0,03 mg  Seboreyny dermatitis, anemia, hair loss, dry skin with a grayish shade  –––
Fat-soluble vitamins
And Retinolum Is necessary for sight, cells of skin, mucous membrane of a mouth, digestive tract, respiratory and urinogenital ways. Helps production of sperm and ova. Accelerates processes of healing of skin  Carotinoids (pro-vitamins A): carrots, pumpkin, sweet pepper, tomato, spinach, broccoli, green onions, parsley greens, bean, soy, apples, melon, dogrose, sea-buckthorn. Vitamin A only in animal products: a liver, whole milk, cream, oil, cheese, cottage cheese, sour cream, eggs, cod-liver oil For adults of 1 mg, for children of 0,4-0,7 mg. Value can be specified in ME: for vitamin A of 1 mg = 3333 ME  Violation of twilight sight "night blindness", kseroftalmiya (dryness of a cornea of an eye), konyyuktivita, deterioration of a condition of skin (dryness, peeling, purulent inflammations, furunkulez), early aging of skin. Dryness in a mouth, increase of sensitivity of tooth enamel. Decrease in immunity, tendency to infectious diseases. Children have a violation of growth of bones.  At sharp poisoning: headache, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, temperature increase of a body, disorder of sight, spasm. At long overdose: headache, irritability, sleeplessness. Locks, joint pains, the increased fragility of bones. Increase in a liver, spleen, a hair loss, fragility of nails, dryness of skin and mucous, a hypothermia, violations of a menstrual cycle More than 10000 ME in day: possibility of development of congenital defects of a fruit  
D calciferol of D2 (ergokaltsiferol) and D3 (holekaltsiferol). It is necessary for bones, prevents development of rickets and osteoporosis. Participates in regulation of pressure, prevents development of oncology, increases immunityD2 from yeast and bread, is constantly developed by D3 in skin under the influence of UV rays, contains in cod liver, a mackerel, milk, eggs, butter Adult – 0,0025 mg, children till 3 years – 0, 001-0,0025 mgChildren have a rickets, adults have an osteoporosis (reduction of durability of bones) and an osteomalyation (a bone softening).  Poisoning: nausea, vomiting, joint pain, spasms, dot hemorrhages. Long overdose: damages of kidneys, hearts, increase in a liver, the increased fragility of bones, anemias. Kaltsifikation (calcium postponement) in fabrics (kidneys, lungs, arteries). Growth inhibition and developments in children
E tocopherol Prevents development of cardiovascular diseases, presenilation of an organismSunflower, creamy and soy oils, almonds, walnuts, peanut, eggs, milk For adults – 10 mg, for children of 3-7 mgMuscular dystrophy, deterioration of work of a cardiac muscle and reproductive organsAllergy, increase of arterial pressure
To fillokhinon Maintains normal coagulability of bloodCabbage, parsley, broccoli, spinach, haricot, cucumbers, soy and olive oil, cheese, eggs, milk, yogurt, cod-liver oil For adult 0,045-0,08 mg, for children of 0,005-0,03 mgHemorrhagic diathesis–––

Как выбрать поливитамины Mineral substances are also necessary for our organism, as well as vitamins. They participate in all exchange processes, are a part of enzymes and hormones, maintain activity of vitamins. They are necessary for creation of a bone tissue, for a water-salt and acid-base exchange, for processes of blood formation and coagulability of blood, work of smooth and motive muscles.
Mineral substances share on 2 groups: macrocells and microcells.
The need for macrocells makes 100 and more mg per day, the need for microcells is measured by micrograms.

Mineral elementSources / daily normShortcomingSurplus
Ca calcium Is necessary for a bone tissue, teeth. participates in muscular contraction and transfer of nervous impulses, in the course of a fibrillationMilk and dairy products, egg yolk For adult 0,8-1 g, children, pregnant women and the feeding women to 1,5-2 guneasiness, front tics, spasms, decrease HELL, fragility of bones (osteoporosis), deterioration of a condition of hair, nails, skin and teethmuscular weakness, apathy, violation of warm activity, increase HELL, changes
Phosphorus P Is a part of bone and brain tissue, participates in exchange processes, participates in ATP synthesis (the substance necessary for muscular contraction)  Cheese, cottage cheese, milk, meat, liver, fish, eggs, grain, haricot, peas, bread For the adult 0,8-1,2, for pregnant women and the feeding women – 1,5-2 g, for children – 1,2-1,5 gAppetite loss, weakness, tremor, to feeling of a pricking in skin, bone pain, growth violationReduces calcium level
Mg magnesium Participates in exchange processes, its connections possess vasodilating properties, lower excitability of TsNS, strengthen a zhelcheotdeleniye and a motility of intestinesRaw grain, almonds, nuts, dark green vegetables, bananas, chocolate bitter, cocoa For adult 350-400 mg, children of 150-300 mgExcitement of nervous system up to spasms, violation of a rhythm of warm reductions, pulse increase, decrease the HELL, gastrointestinal tract diseasesLaxative effect, slackness, muscular weakness, delay of heart rate, decrease HELL
Na sodium the Necessary component of intercellular liquid, participates in transfer of a nervous impulseTable salt (sodium chloride) 4-6 g a dayHypotonia, tachycardia, uneasiness, headaches, muscular spasmsStrong thirst, increase the HELL, a liquid delay in an organism, hypostases, children have an excitability, a hyperactivity
Cl chlorine plays an important role in regulation of a water exchange, is necessary for production of hydrochloric acidTable salt (NaCl) About 2 g a dayMuscular weakness, breath oppressionExcitement, increase HELL, heartbeat increase, puffiness, difficulty of breath
Potassium K Maintains acid-base balance, muscular activity; synthesis of proteins and glycogenDried fruits, yeast, bean, vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, carrots), fruit, cocoa, almonds, peanut of 3-5 gDrowsiness, irritability, violation of a warm rhythm, lowering of blood pressure, muscular weakness, appetite loss, nausea, deterioration of a vermicular movement of intestines, reduction of a mocheotdeleniyeIncrease of reflexes, heartbeat increase, nausea, spasmodic belly-aches
Sulfur S Is a part of amino acids, B1 vitamin, contains in a keratin and melaninMeat, fish, cheeses, eggs, bean, bread, grain, mineral waters with sulfates of 850 mgTachycardia, increase HELL, violations of functions of skin, hair loss, locks, neurotic reactions.Compounds of sulfur (for example, hydrogen sulfide) are toxic, lead to a serious poisoning
Fe iron is a part of hemoglobin, is necessary for processes of cellular respirationLiver, kidneys, heart, products from a flour of a rough grinding, egg yolks, nuts, grain, bean 1-2 mg a day; for pregnant women – to 3,5 mgIron deficiency anemiaVomiting, diarrhea, locks, raises risk of development of atherosclerosis, oncology, cardiovascular diseases
Co cobalt influences blood formation, participates in formation of insulin, B12 vitamin, hormones of a thyroid glandMeat, dairy products, liver, kidneys, beet, garden radish, green onions, garlic, parsley of 0,2 mgWeakness, fatigue, anemia, violation of warm activity (arrhythmia)Violation of warm activity, insufficiency of a thyroid gland, increases risk of thrombosis
Cu copper Is a part of vitamins, hormones, enzymes, participates in a metabolism, supports normal structure of bones, sinews, vessels and nervous fibersMeat, liver, seafood, vegetables, bread, grain (oat, buckwheat, millet), bean 2-5 mgAnemia, aneurisms of vessels, kardiopatiya, osteoporosis, fractures of bones, hypothyroidism, metabolic disorderViolation of functions of a liver and kidneys, damage of a brain, allergodermatoza, gemoliz, anemia
Iodine J Is necessary for development of a tiroksin (a hormone of a thyroid gland)Seafood iodinated salt of 0,1-0,15 mg, for children of 0,05-0,1 mg, for pregnant 0,2 mgViolation of functions thyroid glands: a hypothyroidism, children have a violation of growth and development, cretinism.Bazedova illness (gipertireoz)
Fluorine F Participates in formation of a bone tissue, formation of teeth and tooth enamelDrinking water, and also rice, beef, milk, tea, sea fish of 0,5-1,5 mgCaries, osteoporosisFlyuoroz (darkening and destruction of teeth), a kaltsifikation of sheaves, increase in density of bones – bone spurs
Zn zinc Is a part of many enzymes, is necessary for production of insulin, immune cages, regeneration of skin, growth of hair and nails since participates in production of collagenBeef, liver, nuts, wheat, rice and rye bran, grains of cereals and bean, cocoa, seafood, onions of 10-15 mg for adults and 4-6 mg for childrenDeterioration of a condition of skin, pustulous inflammations, bad healing of wounds, stratifying of nails, emergence on them white spots, deterioration of growth of hair, their loss, diabetes, infertility, immune insufficiencyViolation of functions of a pancreas, deterioration of a condition of skin, hair and nails
Se selenium Has antioxidant effect, slows down aging, protects an organism from effect of heavy metals (cadmium, lead), increases immunityGarlic, wheat bran, mushrooms, olive oil, beer yeast, bean, olives, pistachios of 0,5 mg  Deterioration of immunity, condition of hair and nails, dermatitisHigh doses of inorganic selenium exponentiate carcinogenesis, the condition of nails (stratifying of a nail plate) and teeth (enamel damage) worsens, can cause nervous breakdowns
Si silicon Is necessary for durability and elasticity of epitelialny and connecting fabric (skin, sinews, a vascular wall)          Girasol, seaweed, bran, wild berries, greens About 50 mkgMeets seldom, the skin itch, decrease in elasticity of fabrics, increase of permeability of vessels, fragility of hair can be observedAt inhalation of silicon dust the disease silikoz develops. It is shown by fibrosis of lungs.
Cr chrome Activates effect of insulin, promotes maintenance of level of glucose, regulates a carbohydrate and fatty exchangeBeer yeast, fish, shrimps, crabs, liver, eggs of 0,5 mgChange of level of glucose in blood, risk of development of diabetes, change of body weightDermatitis, eczemas, organism allergization
Mg manganese Participates in regulation of activity of the central nervous system, is important for reproductive function, for muscular tissueIntegral cereals, soy, peas, potatoes, beet, tomatoes, tea of Adult 0,1 mg, to children of 0,2-0,3 mg on
1 kg of body weight
Leads to bone deformations, functions of ovaries and small eggs are broken, brain activity worsens, there are motive frustration, muscular pains and spasms, children have a development violationFatigue, weakness, disorder of gait, constraint of movements, headache, extremity pains
Molybdenum (Mo) Promotes digestion of carbohydrates and fats, interferes with development of anemiaDark green sheet vegetables, grain, bean 0,075-0,25 mg  The increased irritability, tachycardia, risk of development of a cancer of gulletGout
Sn tin Is a part of gastric enzyme, influences growthAnimal fats, fat fish, milk of 2-10 mgGrowth delay, deterioration of hearingUnpleasant feelings in a mouth (smack of metal)

Specialized polyvitamins

Поливитамины At a choice of polyvitaminic preparations first of all it is necessary to pay attention to structure and to a dosage of the names specified in it. It can strongly differ for people of the different age categories leading various life for pregnant women, athletes, elderly people, etc. Recently complexes of "the directed action", for example, for sight, for cardiovascular system, for maintenance and strengthening of immunity, for beauty (strengthening of hair, nails, improvement of a condition of skin), for people, with the increased intellectual or physical activities, etc. were widely adopted.
Various preparations may contain doses from preventive, to medical and megadoses (depending on appointment), also they can contain various additional components of a vegetable and chemical origin. And taking into account the above deviations which can arise at excess of daily norm, will recommend before reception of these or those polyvitamins to consult with the doctor.
What polyvitamins of "the directed action" and why the different amount of vitamins and minerals are their part exist? The answer to it a question is stated below.
Для детей особенно важно получать достаточное количество витаминов и минеральных веществ, ведь их нехватка сказывается на физическом и умственном развитииFor children it is especially important to receive enough vitamins and mineral substances, after all their shortage affects physical and intellectual development. The children's age is considered one of indications to preventive reception of polyvitaminic preparations. In drugstores the wide choice of children's polyvitamins in various forms (powder, syrup, gel, drops, tablets and pastils), for various age categories of children is presented (Pikovit, Multi-Tabs, Biovitalgel, Vitrum, etc., and also vitamin complexes for the children inclined to an allergy – Alvitil, Vibovit-Bebi, Multi-Tabs Immuno of Kids). Such forms as drops, syrup, powder or gel (they can be added to food) will be suitable for kids of 1 year, to children is more senior – tablets and pastils. Surely pay attention to the age recommended for use of vitamins, specified on packing!
Для беременных достаточное поступление в организм витаминов и минеральных веществ просто необходимо, от этого зависит протекание беременности и здоровье будущего малышаFor pregnant women sufficient receipt in an organism of vitamins and mineral substances is just necessary, course of pregnancy and health of future kid depends on it. First of all, the woman during this period needs vitamins C, B1, B6, folic acid. However and excess of some vitamins B this period is extremely dangerous. Therefore manufacturers of vitamin preparations developed the complexes intended especially for pregnant women, considering requirements of an organism of the woman during this period (the raised content of folic acid, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, iodine, calcium, iron, also in connection with danger of overdose of vitamin A in vitamins for pregnant women the part it is presented by beta carotene). Vitamins for pregnant women: Multi-tabs Perinatal, Pregnavit, Vitrum Prenatal and Vitrum Prenatal Forte, Komplivit Mother, Elevit Pronatal, Sang-Saul, Alphabet Mother's health, etc.
С возрастом снижается способность организма к усвоению витаминов, кроме того, организм пожилых людей чаще всего ослаблен различными заболеваниями и приемом лекарственных препаратов, поэтому дополнительный прием поливитаминов им зачастую необходимFor the elderly. With age ability of an organism to digestion of vitamins decreases, besides, the organism of elderly people is most often weakened by various diseases and reception of medicines therefore additional reception of polyvitamins is often necessary for them. The requirement at them for vitamins of group B, E, C and A is especially high. There are special vitamins, for example, Polivit-geriatrik, Gerimaks Geriavit farmaton, they are characterized by high content of selenium or chrome, and Gerimaks and Geriavit farmaton also include ginseng root extract (the adaptogen raising the general tone of an organism). Besides, (especially to women) application of the preparations of calcium preventing development of osteoporosis is recommended to elderly people (calcium preparations with vitamin D – Vitrum Kaltsium, D3 Calcium Nikomed, Kaltsemin, etc.)
It is known that shortage of vitamins is reflected first of all in a condition of skin, hair and nails. Vitamins A, B2, B6, N are necessary for health of hair; for nails of A, D, C, for teeth of Ca, D, A, for skin – A, B2, B5, B12, PP, N, E. Therefore special vitamin and mineral complexes were developed for beauty (for example, Vitrum Byyuti, Byyuti-Tabs Charm, Mertz, etc.).
Vitamins A, With and E are necessary for health of eyes. Vitamin complexes for sight (such as Lyutein a complex, Vitrum Vizhn, Bilberry Forte, Sofya) contain complexes of vitamins and microcells: And, vitamins of group B, E, beta carotene, With, zinc, selenium, etc., and also bilberry extracts, lyutein and other vegetable substances promoting strengthening of eyes, preventing development of violations of sight.
At people with pathologies of cardiovascular system the need for vitamins antioxidants increases (With, E, A, zinc). Also B1, B6 vitamins, niatsin, routines, etc. are necessary for heart. Preparations are developed for such purposes: Askorutin, Ayevit, Vitamaks Plus, Vitrum Kardio. These complexes are directed on decrease in level of cholesterol, improvement of work of heart and vessels.
Also there are special vitamins for the people having diabetes, after all they especially need vitamins E, With, group B, and also chrome, zinc and selenium (Tri-Vee-Plus, Vitamaks).
Vitamins for prevention and treatment of neurologic frustration is first of all vitamins of group B (Neyromultivit, Milgamm).
People with the increased intellectual and physical activities especially need A, C, D, E, B6 vitamins therefore for them there are complexes directed on increase of a tone and resistance to stress (Supradin, Gerimaks Vitrum of Superstress, Berokka and dr).

However once again reminds that at a choice of this or that preparation it is necessary to remember that a dosage, application duration, its use along with other medicines, taking into account existence of these or those diseases (and it significantly influences the content of vitamins B an organism) – a subject for serious reflections. Use of vitamins has to be reasonable and thought over, it is desirable to carry out it under supervision of the doctor, with carrying out necessary researches for diagnostics and control of therapy.
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