One of the integral tasks at is the gradual increase in a lexicon.
Literacy and professionalism of the speaking is defined by quantity and a variety of the used words. On storing of new words a lot of time and forces leaves. And often there is a problem of their extraction from memory. With what it is connected and why once carefully learned words are forgotten?
Scientists distinguish three departments of memory of time of its action: short-term, medium-term and long-term.
Short-term is responsible for perception and information processing at the time of its receiving and gives the chance to reproduce it within the next few 24-48 hours. Medium-term memory allows to reproduce information received for the last one-two months. Long-term memory stores the received information all life.
Depending on how or method it is presented, perceived and with what frequency information repeats, it will get to different departments of memory. On the frequency of use and reproduction of the received information memory is divided on active and passive. Any information received even in a random way is brought in passive memory.
Passive memory only contains information, but does not provide its reproduction. Active memory is responsible for possibility of reproduction of information.
There are many techniques of increase in a lexicon, however, as practice shows, some of them are effective, and some are not present. Process of storing of new words should be organized so that they got to department of long-term active memory.
The methods described in article are focused on increase in a lexicon of foreign words. But at this InfoAdvisor.net has to notice: everything that we will advise below, you can quite use for replenishment of a lexicon native language.
Learning of words "column"
This method of increase in a lexicon is familiar to all without exception, and everyone at least once in life used it. The essence of a method consists in a mere verbiage zazubrivaniye with the translation, and often words belong to different thematic sections and are not connected among themselves at all.
For example, at school, at institute, at work the task to learn a certain volume of words which list is attached is given. Short deadlines of performance of a task aggravate a situation. So, for example, any student the day before before delivery starts cramming the list on some tens, and even hundreds of unknown words. Undoubtedly, to the appointed term all words will be learned and handed over … A question only in what quantity from these words will be really remembered with possibility of their use in the future. Here InfoAdvisor.net has to emphasize minus of such method. The matter is that at this learning of words "column" short-term memory therefore information can be reproduced only some days becomes more active. If the words learned in the similar way are not repeated next day and every other day, they move to department of long-term passive memory.
The residual effect of this method is shown during , the translation of texts, etc., – the majority of the words which are found in the text is familiar, but the translation does not manage to be remembered them.
Method of the twenty fifth shot
The method of the twenty fifth shot is based on properties of a human brain and on features of perception by it information. By science it is proved that the brain of the person is capable to perceive 24 frames per second with further reproduction. If the video series consists of 25 frames, the 25th shot is perceived only at the level of subconsciousness. Information containing in the twenty fifth shot is postponed in the passive register of memory, i.e. people, even without wishing that, remembers the received information.
This technique is widely applied by founders of commercials as thus the target audience "is psychologically wound" to a necessary state and becomes the consumer. As for efficiency of this method when studying foreign lexicon, practical results leave much to be desired. Besides over time if constantly to resort to a method of the 25th shot, there is the same effect of difficulty of perception, as when learning words "column" as information is only brought in memory, and there is no the factor giving the chance it from there to take.
Among the people learning a foreign language usually I resort to a technique of the 25th shot idlers who are sure that thus they not only exhaust new words in memory, and and save thus time. But, as we know, to retrain much more difficult, than to learn from scratch.
This method is very effective and simple in application. What is "notes" and how to use them?
Packing of color stickers undertakes. On the one hand a sticker the word, with another – its translation is written. If the word has some values, InfoAdvisor.net advises to make and write down on the party with the translation the offer only with one of its values. In the same way to include other values in studying process a little later when the previous value well is acquired. Stickers can be stuck on all house (on the refrigerator, on doors, on mirrors, on the monitor, etc.) in places which constantly I flash at you before eyes. Also "notes" can be carried with themselves and constantly to touch free minutes (for example, at a driving in transport, expectation of turn, etc.).
At this method partially there is an effect of the twenty fifth shot. However, efficiency of increase in a lexicon is provided to that at creation of "notes" also memory of reproduction as new words and their translation are written by hand joins.
Expansion of a synonymic row
Beginning learning of foreign language, get a notebook of synonyms to which will constantly add again meeting when reading and in informal conversation of the word. The main thing that it was convenient to use is possible for its message in a free form. For example, on each synonymic row it is possible to take away according to one page. Studying the new text, allocate the synonyms which are coming across to you, and then transfer them to the necessary page of a notebook.
The notebook of synonyms needs to be conducted not simply and constantly to fill up, the increase in your lexicon will be promoted also by its scrolling from time to time, it is also useful to make with synonyms of the offer and phrase. Synonyms have to rotate constantly in your subconsciousness. If you heard or saw some word somewhere, mentally pick up to it a synonym if that was not in your arsenal of words, InfoAdvisor.net advises to ask for the help the dictionary.
For what in general it needs to be done? First of all, in order that it is easy and simple to read subsequently art, scientific and other literature as in any literature the maximum variety of lexicon is used. Secondly, possession of a wide synonymic row allows to express more precisely and in expressive way the thoughts in oral speech. Besides at a big lexicon (including a stock of synonyms) also speech speed increases.
"Pursuit of words" (work with the dictionary)
This method very fascinating is also somewhat similar to game. For increase in a lexicon by this method it is desirable to use not pocket dictionaries, but big dictionaries containing from 70 000 words. Rather exhaustive article in which are given not only all its values is provided in such dictionaries on each word, and and offers are provided as examples of its use in different contexts. Investigating values of one word, you by all means will come across any other word which met earlier, but the translation to you is not known. It is interesting to look and as this word is translated. In the same way, at research of an entry of this word the following "half-familiar" words, etc. in passing emerge.
When studying foreign words by such method it is very important to remember, with what pretexts and in what turns this or that word is used.
As it was already told on InfoAdvisor.net, all techniques, including work with the dictionary, can help and with increase in a lexicon native to you language, in this case Russian. It is enough to arm with the big Soviet encyclopedia and/or the explanatory dictionary (Dahl, Ojegov, Ushakov or other on your discretion).
Thematic cards are formed in any studied text. For this method it is better to select the finished texts at 5-6 thousand signs in size. It can be topics on various colloquial subjects (holidays, the countries, the people, writers, food, leisure, etc.), newspaper articles, heads from works of art, fairy tales, etc.
For thematic cards it is better to use dense sheets of paper the A5 format.
Unknown words and expressions get out of the text and register in a column with numbering (it is possible and even it is better to write to two columns – depending on boldness of handwriting). On one card words only in a foreign language are written, on the second same card their translation only with that value in which this word is used in this text is written.
The list of the words which are written down on a card on any subject can be supplemented constantly with the new words on the same subject which are found subsequently in other texts. But InfoAdvisor.net does not recommend to create a separate card on each new text, of course, is not present. If the text comes across to you a subject on which the card is already got, continue it to supplement.
Finally words will be grouped in subjects, it will be possible to find and use them easily and quickly both when reading books, and in oral speech.
It is a method of increase in a lexicon in rather short terms bears fruit as when writing by hand of thematic cards and their continuous use works memory of reproduction, and words get to the active register of memory.
Method of associations
The method of associations is based on feature of subconsciousness to establish connection between information and the accompanying its factors. Using this method, it is necessary to accompany all studied words with any bright factor. Pictures, video series, sounds, emotions, rhymes, etc. can be such factors. When any word learned by a similar method to the memory meets at first recurs the factor accompanying it, and following and the word.
As a rule, it is good to use this method when training in a foreign language of children, and also people who hard are given studying of language as that. By method of associations in that case it is possible to learn not only words and phrases, and and rules of grammar, representing grammatical designs tables, schemes, schedules, etc.
Reading without the translation
When studying any foreign language it is necessary to seek for achievement of such level of understanding when it is not required to translate mentally the word at oral speech and reading.
When reading the new text all unknown words without the translation are written out. The text is closed, opposite to each new word its translation is written. Several times it is worth reading words with the translation, but not to jag them. There is enough that the general idea of the text was created. Further InfoAdvisor.net recommends to make the following. You put words with the translation aside and try to read the text, without spying in the translation of words. If you after all cannot remember the translation of any word, try to pick up it for a context. And if it does not work well, spot in record. Thus, the text needs to be read until you do not remember almost literally its contents.
And as fixing of the learned words it is necessary to read several times the text, without translating any word in it (to read as if you would read not the foreign text, but the text on native to you language).
This method takes a lot of time and forces is however very effective not only for increase in a lexicon, and and for development of speed of thinking in the learned language, and also for perception of the received information. The method of studying of the words "Reading without the Translation" gives the chance not only to remember unknown words, and and to learn "to think" in a foreign language that is very important at communication with native speakers.
Compositions and statements
All school compositions and statements are well-known, the similar type of work was never pleasant to much, but at learning of foreign language it allows to expand considerably lexical range and to transfer words to active memory.
The statement is a retelling of the text. First it is necessary to do it in writing, and with time and orally. When retelling the text of InfoAdvisor.net recommends to use as much as possible lexicon, characteristic for it, but not to use already available vocabulary. For this purpose previously with the text it is necessary to work properly: to read, translate and write out unknown words and expressions, and then to pass to the use of new words in a statement.
Having learned and having seized technology of writing of statements, it is possible to pass to writing of small compositions. For this purpose the group of new words (words 25-30) undertakes and with them the story on any subject is formed. Thus there can be a small complexity in which the maximum effect of this method consists. With the new word to think up the offer not a problem, and here to make the coherent text with group of words – already more difficult. For a start, perhaps, it is worth being limited to 10 new words, and with each subsequent composition to increase their quantity.
Calendar of repetition of lexicon (memory calendar)
The calendar of memory represents the schedule of frequency of repetition of the studied words. This method is developed by the German institute dealing with memory research issues. Scientists established that if to repeat the same information with certain periods, it is brought in long-term active memory. If long time not to use the words learned by such method, they form the active and passive register of memory that gives the chance of their reproduction at the first need (while when learning words "column" or by method of the 25th shot, the unclaimed lexicon hides in a memory passive, from where to take it rather difficult).
How it is correct to make a memory calendar? For descriptive reasons InfoAdvisor.net suggests you to use the table of the following contents:
|Date of studying||+1 day||+1 day||+3 days||+ week||+2 weeks||+mesyats||+mesyats|
|10 Saint.||11 Saint.||12 Saint.||15 Saint.||22 Saint.||6 Oct.||6 noyab.||6 Dec.|
It is simple to count that the full cycle of storing of information makes nearly three months. But it does not mean that three months need to be learned only the same words. It is desirable to group lexicon in subjects. And to begin a cycle of studying of each subject not in the same day.
If this method of increase in a lexicon is already chosen, it is worth adhering strictly to the schedule of repetition of lexicon and not to pass any designated day, then the effect will be maximum.
Live communication with the native speaker
Live always gives a lot of positive experience in studying of any foreign language. Try to speak as much as possible and with different interlocutors, especially with carriers of the learned language. Even if you have problems with grammatical designs – they will leave over time. The main thing that at communication with the native speaker to you unknown words will meet (do not hesitate to find out right there value of these words from the interlocutor). InfoAdvisor.net advises right there to address to the interlocutor with the statement, perhaps, not having relations to your conversation, but also with use of the new word in it. So the word will better be remembered, and you will check at the same time, whether correctly used the new word in the context of the offer made by you. If cannot think up, ask the interlocutor to give an example of use of the word, new to you, we think, will not refuse to you.
Thanks to communication with native speakers, except new words, you will adopt a speaking manner, a mimicry and emotions, the pronunciation and perception of someone else's speech will be adjusted. In addition very important aspect are dialects and colloquial lexicon which are inherent in live communication.
It is possible to communicate with carriers in so-called "a spiking klaba" which are usually organized on courses of learning of foreign languages. In addition it is worth participating in various conferences which are devoted to various problems and are, as a rule, carried out in a foreign language with participation of foreign speakers. In the same place, at conferences it is possible also most to give the report, having trained to address public. As a rule, after each report there is a heated discussion of the stated problem where you at once have some foreign interlocutors. Thus at once it is possible to combine with other method of increase in a lexicon – "Thematic cards" – to write down the heard words, unfamiliar for you, and after to learn and write out their value.
Summing up, it is necessary to notice that any of methods is not effective for 100%. Everything depends on specific features of memory and perception of each person. It is worth trying each of methods and to choose one or several of them who as much as possible correspond to abilities and are comfortable in use.