Special knowledge will help to cut down significantly material expenses, and also will allow to make an accurate floor in a bathroom or in kitchen. How for a floor and to make a laying independently, the speech in this article will go.
History of emergence of a ceramic tile
The first products from clay as a basis for a ceramic tile, appeared with pioneer settlements of our civilization. Initially clay was used by potters for production of house utensils, for example, of ware. Then plasticity and durability of clay were estimated by architects who were accustomed to decorate temples and palaces with bas-reliefs and stucco mouldings from clay. The first architectural masterpiece in which clay actively "participated" — it is the Babel tower well-known around the world. Masters of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia used bricks from clay for construction of usual houses. This results from the fact that in the territory of the certain states was not in enough construction wood. In Russia art from clay became active to develop in the X century when the Russian masters for the first time presented the tiles.
In spite of the fact that already passed not one century, a ceramic tile and now remains demanded material for facing, and also one of the most practical options of registration of facades and rooms inside. The ceramic tile is widely used not only in habitual for many zones, a bathroom and in kitchen, but also for registration of decorative floors in a bedroom and a drawing room, and also in facing of buildings of public value. The tile — is high-strength, attractive material with the long term of operation.
Types of a tile for a floor
Technological process of production of a ceramic tile, or tile, is presented by pressing of clay, quartz sand and additional mineral elements with the subsequent roasting to furnaces at ultrahigh temperatures (1000-1250 degrees Celsius).
Depending on the production technology of pottery, in particular, of a tile, there is the following classification:
- ekstrudirovanny option receive by a pulling of clay weight through an opening of the set form for the purpose of formation of a sample of the necessary size with further sharp it;
- the pressed option is received by pressing of clay and special mineral additives in a special matrix with the subsequent roasting by an autoclave method.
A certain production technology gives the chance to receive two types of a tile:
The first type of a tile can be subject to heat treatment during two cycles, and its face cover with a thin layer of color glass. It also gives to a tile such variety of flowers, shades and gloss. Hardness and impermeability of a tile for a floor is also provided due to special processing.
The unglazed tile is identical on all thickness and has a uniform appearance.
Depending on internal structure, the ceramic tile can be used as material only for internal works, for example, finishing of floors or walls indoors, or only for exterior finish (clinker).
On the sphere of use distinguish 3 types of material:
- tile of unary roasting (with an opaque or glossy surface). Swore at the main mission of such — finishing of a floor or walls indoors as the surface very dense, has low extent of absorption of moisture and it is steady against bends;
- the tile of double roasting too can have an opaque and glossy surface. But ready material has porous fragile structure therefore it can be used only for a decor of walls. And here the color palette of such tile is much more interesting and more extensive than the previous;
- the brick tile represents the third category of material which can be used for finishing of both external facades of rooms, and internal. Due to unary roasting by an extrusion method, the structure of a tile turns out fine-grained and dense, thus completely there are no emptiness. Therefore it is possible to use such material for floors in kitchen, a bathroom, a corridor and the hall.
By production of a tile two types of clay are used:
Products from white clay are characterized by a light shade of the back party, and from the red — from yellow to dark red.
The main stages of laying of a tile on a floor
Now, having information on types of a tile, InfoAdvisor.net will consider directly material laying process by the hands. For this purpose it is necessary to prepare the following tools:
- gear pallet 10 by 10 of mm;
- diamond file for a cut;
- daggers for seams.
At the first stage the floor to concrete is smoothed out and flatness of a surface by means of the level (admissible fluctuation of 5 mm) is measured. Deep cracks are closed up by solution.
At the second stage the floor primer is carried out.
The third stage the most responsible as the marking becomes. For this purpose there is a center of the room from which put a tile on each side that from above and from below there were identical pieces. If centering does not work well, choose laying option from a corner or from a wall.
The fourth stage — laying of a tile. Having divided space into 4 parts, start stacking a tile in one sector. And to level glue for a tile if it cement, it is necessary to apply on a floor the gear pallet that as a result on a surface there were strips. It is at the same time desirable to fill with glue no more than one square meter. After each number of the laid tile it is necessary to stack daggers for a tile. It is so gradually filled all sectors.
The fifth stage is connected with seal of seams between tiles. Cement or special cream for seal of seams — a zatirka is for this purpose used. By means of the rubber pallet mix is rubbed clean between tile joints. The remains are cleaned by means of a sponge.
Further it is necessary to allow to a floor to dry out well. The period for full drying depends on thickness of a layer of glue and its quality. The full period of drying averages 24 hours, and in 2-3 days the floor is ready to accept full loading.