Examining an internal surface of an intestinal tube by means of a special unique priborchik - a probe, the doctor can reveal serious diseases, among which cancer tumors, nonspecific , polyps, diverticulums, an illness Krone. Sometimes the kolonoskopiya is actively used for carrying out operations on a thick gut (its extent about one and a half meters). For example, if kolonoproktolog during this endoscopic research notices a polyp, it at once can remove it, and then send to laboratory for further survey under a microscope.
General information about inspection
During a kolonoskopiya as it was already mentioned, the special probe called by a colonoscope is involved. It is the long flexible tube equipped with an eyepiece, a light source, the device for giving in a gleam of a gut of air and the tiny nippers allowing to carry out an intake of histologic material at the time of inspection. There is at modern models of colonoscopes also a built-in chamber, it allows to bring the image to the computer monitor (the increased scale gives the chance fixedly to consider separate areas and not to miss pathological changes), to take the picture of sites of a large intestine. The colonoscope having some special additional channels is entered directly into an anus, and then slowly moves ahead on all large intestine to a place of its transition to a small intestine. On average procedure lasts 20-40 minutes. Examination is conducted under local anesthesia or the general short-term anesthesia. The doctor has many opportunities during procedure:
- He estimates color mucous, its gloss, vessels which are in a submucous layer fixes diameter of a gleam, physical activity, existence in walls of a gut of inflammatory processes.
- He can notice different educations on mucous, for example, polyps, cracks, yazvochka, hems, erosion, diverticulums, gemorroidalny knots, tumors, foreign matters.
- There is an opportunity by means of tweezers "to bite off" a polyp or a slice of the site causing by the form suspicions on pathology. Then all this is transferred to laboratory where will conduct histologic researches, will specify, whether the good-quality occurs process or malignant.
- The patient will be relieved of surgery because kolonoproktolog during research deletes small good-quality educations, polyps.
- At detection of a foreign matter, it can be taken.
- If the site of a gut is narrowed because of hems, the rekanalization becomes.
- It is possible to eliminate with cauterization or medicines a bleeding source from intestines.
- It is possible to photograph an internal surface of an intestinal tube.
Now in a number of clinics one more new and perspective method – a virtual kolonoskopiya takes root. She allows to receive by method of a computer tomography of the image of walls of a thick gut. Doctors note advantages of this method: such research less travmatichno, it gives more exact sizes and localization of sites with pathological changes. But there are also minuses: procedure expensive, during inspection it is impossible to receive samples of fabrics for histology. In this case in intestines (that to stretch it) air therefore patients often complain of discomfort in a stomach and the pain connected with it is started. That the kolonoskopiya gave the doctor as much as possible information, it is necessary to be prepared for it correctly. Already told the readers in about this Mirsovetov.
When the kolonoskopiya is appointed?
WHO recommends strongly to undergo procedure of a kolonoskopiya even to healthy people, if their age more than forty years. It is desirable to survey intestines then every five-seven years.
Immediately conduct this examination in the following cases:
- if from a large intestine pus, blood or slime starts being emitted;
- if the patient complains of the pains arising on the course of a large intestine;
- at which does not manage to be explained;
- weight loss even if the person well eats, especially, if it has relatives at whom the cancer of a thick gut was revealed;
- if after an irrigoskopiya the doctor had doubts and suspicions that the patient has a new growth;
- after a rektoromanoskopiya if it helped to reveal tumors or polipozny outgrowths – then it is necessary to examine overlying departments of the intestinal device which rektoroskop is not able to reach;
- foreign matter in a gleam of a thick gut;
- in the presence of continuous frustration of a chair (it belongs both to , and to ).
Whether there are contraindications to this inspection?
There are in medical practice also such cases when it is impossible to conduct this examination:
- at strong indications ;
- during flash of sharp infectious processes (irrespective of their localization);
- at heart and pulmonary failure (at late stages);
- when there are signs indicating an exacerbation of ulcer or ischemic colitis;
- if there are problems in mechanisms of the curtailing system of blood.
Kolonoskopiya is not carried out at pregnant women, it transfer if at the patient the attack of a divertikulit suddenly begins or the illness Krone becomes aggravated.
Whether complications are possible?
Inspection by means of a colonoscope seldom leads to complications. But nevertheless we will call them:
- 1% of patients have a perforation of intestines – then restoration of the damaged zone requires urgent operation;
- if the patient is under anesthetic, can (at 05% of patients) to be observed pressure drop, or to stop breath, then resuscitation events are urgently held;
- even less often bleedings meet (both at the time of procedure, and some hours later and even days);
- if the proctologist removed a polyp, at the patient in temperature increase of a body and pain in a stomach the first few days can be observed;
- in the extremely exceptional cases after a kolonoskopiya it becomes clear that there was an infection of the patient or salmonellosis.
If you fell into hands of the qualified, skilled kolonoproktolog, implement all its recommendations, be quiet during inspection, then it will take place successfully and will help the doctor to make the correct diagnosis and to begin effective therapy.