Pathogenesis in the period of an infectious mononukleoz
When infectious mononukleoz gets into airways, it leads to deformation of an epithelium and lymphoid tissue of an oral and nasal throat. Thus mononukleoz causes puffiness of a mucous membrane, increase in almonds and lymph nodes on a neck. Further the virus gets into cytoplasm of V-lymphocytes, extending on all organism. When infectious mononukleoz extends on all body, then in an organism the giperplaziya of fabrics begins.
If infectious mononukleoz renews in V-lymphocytes, active cell fission and their growth in plazmotsita which in turn emit immunoglobulins of low specificity begins. Infectious mononukleoz is such disease that even if to carry out long-term and correct treatment, the virus all the same remains in an organism throughout all life. As a result of presence at a human body mononukleoz reduces immunity and can prove at any time. If infectious mononukleoz it is expressed by immunological reactions, then the disease can be considered as an illness of immune system therefore infectious mononukleoz carry to group - the associated diseases.
That provokes emergence of an infectious mononukleoz
Infectious mononukleoz it is caused by a DNA-genomic virus of family of the gerpesovy. Such type of a virus has ability to be replicated. But in difference from other viruses which exist in a human body, DNA-genomic does not destroy a cage and does not lead to their death. On the contrary, this virus activates cellular proliferation (growth). Full-fledged particles of a virus (vireos) include specific anti-genes:
- the nuclear;
- the early;
- the membrane.
Each of these elements is formed in sequence and is responsible for synthesis of the corresponding antibodies. If in the person it is found infectious mononukleoz, in blood of the patient there are antibodies to a kapsidny anti-gene, and then antibodies to nuclear and membrane anti-genes are developed. When drying the activator of an infectious mononukleoz quickly perishes therefore the virus cannot be a long time in environment. Such phenomenon is connected with influence by high temperature and dezinfekant.
Source of excitement of an infectious mononukleoz is the person who has a manifest or erased illness form. Last days of the incubatory period, and also for 6-18 months after primary infection carriers of an infectious mononukleoz allocate a virus, thereby infecting surrounding people. It is also possible to find in 15-25 percent of healthy people mononukleoz in washouts from a rotoglotka. If the person had a virus of an infectious mononukleoz earlier, it on an extent of a long time allocates the causative agent of a disease with the saliva.
As it is transferred infectious mononukleoz
Mononukleoz is transferred in the aerosol airborne way. Often infectious mononukleoz it is transferred from the sick person or the carrier to healthy with a saliva. The virus can be transmitted at kisses, , through hands, subjects of use and a toy. Is not excluded that fact that mononukleoz it is possible to pick up at blood transfusion, and also at the time of delivery.
At most of people a high natural susceptibility to a disease, but a thicket the erased and easy forms of an infectious mononukleoz prevail. If the child for the first year of life seldom is ill mononukleozy, it testifies to congenital passive immunity which is capable to tear away mononukleoz. At a condition of an immunodeficiency at the person the infection causing infectious mononukleoz promotes generalization of a virus.
Signs of an infectious mononukleoz
The main epidemiological signs of an infectious mononukleoz are what characterize ubiquity of distribution of an illness. Often sporadic flashes are registered, and sometimes infectious mononukleoz is characterized by small flashes. Mononukleoz to distinguish not so simply therefore diagnosis of a disease cannot be carried out in all hundred percent of cases of an infectious mononukleoz. For this reason in the country of officially registered cases of an illness it is much less, than sick is actually.
Infectious mononukleoz often meets at teenagers. At girls mononukleoz appears usually at the age of 14-16 years, and at boys a little later - at 16-18 summer age. Because of the frequency of diseases among youth infectious mononukleoz call a student's illness. Where people which age exceeds forty years but if at such age the HIV-positive person meets the infection causing mononukleoz are ill less often, infection with a virus of an infectious mononukleoz even at more adults is not excluded.
If infectious mononukleoz met on the way of the person at early age, primary infection looks as a respiratory disease, at more adults mononukleoz proceeds without any symptoms that is explained by existence in blood of the antibodies developed with age to the virus causing infectious mononukleoz. Such antibodies appear aged after thirty years at most of people, as explains rare emergence of an infectious mononukleoz in adults.
Infectious mononukleoz can appear at all seasons of the year, but most less often the disease is registered during the summer period. The symptoms characterizing infectious mononukleoz:
- joint and muscles pains;
- the unpleasant tearing-up feelings when swallowing;
- and appetite;
- , fever, the strengthened sweating;
- temperature increase to 38-39 degrees;
- increase in lymph nodes in a neck;
- increase in a liver and spleen.
The fever accompanying infectious mononukleoz can keep from several days to one and more months. Infectious mononukleoz strongly develops by the end of the first week and then various syndromes are shown: , limfadenopatiya, gepatoliyenalny syndrome. Infectious mononukleoz considerably worsens health of the sick person, especially unpleasant feelings are brought by damage of mucous membranes of a mouth. On almonds there is a purulent raid, and the back wall of a throat becomes friable and granular.
These symptoms of an infectious mononukleoz are shown at all patients with such disease. But in certain cases infectious mononukleoz can be followed by an icteric syndrome, urine darkening, increase of the content of bilirubin in blood.
If at pregnancy appeared infectious mononukleoz
If during pregnancy the woman had first signs of an infectious mononukleoz, it is necessary to address quickly to the doctor for specification of the diagnosis. Besides the doctor will appoint adequate treatment which will not do much harm to a fruit and the course of pregnancy in general. It is important to remember that the visit tightening to the doctor is inadmissible because all know that at pregnancy it is very difficult to be treated for any diseases. It is connected with that during incubation of the child it is impossible to accept strong preparations.
Also it is worth knowing that infectious mononukleoz can lead to serious complications, to treat which it is necessary long enough. And if mononukleoz appeared even before pregnancy, it is worth waiting with conception of the child to an absolute recovery from a disease. After all if infectious mononukleoz develops into a chronic form, it can threaten with the following consequences:
- changes in blood;
- rupture of a spleen;
- , blockade, perikardity;
- acute liver failure;
And if at pregnancy there is at least one of above-mentioned diseases, it threatens with serious consequences for permission of situation. Besides, mononukleoz does an organism vulnerable to various infections which presence at the woman's organism at pregnancy is not necessary at all. And main thing! The virus, defiant infectious mononukleoz is onkogenny therefore InfoAdvisor.net advises to watch over the health and to take care, especially if the disease developed during pregnancy.
How to treat infectious mononukleoz
Infectious mononukleoz an easy and medium-weight form it is possible to treat in house conditions. For this purpose it is necessary to observe a bed rest at the expressed intoxication. If mononukleoz proceeds with manifestation of hepatitis, then the diet during treatment of a disease is necessary. Also rinsing of a throat antiseptic solutions helps to treat mononukleoz. If the patient has bacterial complications, then appoint reception of antibiotics.
In case infectious mononukleoz proceeds with hypertoxical symptoms or with threat of asphyxia which can lead to hypostasis of a throat and the expressed increase in almonds, then the short course of treatment Prednisolonum inside is necessary (it is a preparation which belongs to glyukortikoida) for 3-4 days.