Reasons of development of a disease
The reliable reason of emergence of an ichthyosis is still not found out, besides, that an illness hereditary. Some suspicions in experts are caused by in an organism, and also insufficient activity of sweat glands and a thyroid gland. Because of similar failures in blood the level of amino acids which brings a dissonance in an exchange of proteins sharply increases, and the amount of cholesterol breaking a fatty exchange increases. At the people suffering from an ichthyosis the slowed-down metabolism and the wrong thermal control is often observed.
Forms and symptoms of a disease
All numerous forms of a disease unite some general characteristics: they appear in the childhood, remain with the person for the rest of life and all are expressed by an external extensive orogoveniye of integuments.
The form of an ichthyosis is defined by a skin damage rate.
It is one of the easiest forms of an ichthyosis. Excessively dry skin becomes covered by small otrubevidny scales. If slightly to scratch skin, mealy-white strips of a peeling are very well noticeable. Also on bends of extremities and buttocks it is possible to see a scattering of small small knots of grayish, light pink or cyanotic shades.
Skin at this type of a disease rough, in mouths of hair follicles horn traffic jams which center penetrates a hair are formed. The congestion of skin defects is observed on back surfaces of hands and forward surfaces of feet.
Heavier and unpleasant, in comparison with two previous, a disease form. Skin partially "acquires" sites of horn scales. Dirty-white color of scales can smoothly pass into a marble shade. Orogoveniye generally on skin of hands and feet are localized, filling mouths of hair follicles. Direct sunshine refract on scales, giving them a nacreous shade – for this reason the name "fish scales" even is more widespread, than "ichthyosis". On peripheral areas the horn surface in places exfoliates, edges of scales rise a little in this connection contours of the sites struck with an ichthyosis look is lighter, than their more dark central part.
This form of a disease affects a stomach and a waist, is also localized on a back and internal surface of hands and a forward surface of feet. These areas become covered by a layer of black horn plates while face skin, natural folds on a body, medial sites of hands and feet and on each side a trunk remains normal.
It is quite serious form of a disease. Thick and rough scales cover all general surface of an integument of a back, person and forward part of a trunk, natural folds suffer even. Dry skin "acquires" scales of a brownish-gray shade which have an appearance of accurately limited rectangular or oval plates to 3 cm in the diameter. The head is, as a rule, covered with grayish-silvery scales which general view reminds dry seborrhea. The form of a disease is complicated by that sinks of ears are deformed, growing to the head, eyelids are truncated and twisted, a hard palate Gothic.
Shares on an ikhtioziformny eritrodermiya and a pre-natal ichthyosis. The last form can appear on 3 – 5 month of pregnancy and meets infrequently. Such children are born in a dense horn bed which appearance reminds a tortoise shell or leather of a crocodile. In most cases kids with this form of a disease premature and impractical.
The Ikhtioziformny eritrodermiya is also very brightly expressed right after the child's birth. Skin of the newborn is covered by a thin dry film of a yellowish shade. After a while it is torn away then the lamellar surface of integuments starts being shelled. This process in process of a growing of the child amplifies.
Diagnosis of a disease
Practically in all cases of a symptomatic picture of an illness it is enough that the expert made the correct diagnosis. When the congenital form of an ichthyosis is differentiated with an eritrodermiya, for confirmation of the diagnosis address to histologic research of skin.
Treatment of a disease
The ichthyosis will respond to treatment as in the conditions of a hospital, and is out-patient: everything depends on extent of development of a disease. Treatment of an ichthyosis is presented by the long, regularly repeating courses of vitamin therapy (And, B, E, C and high doses of nicotinic acid). One of the main objectives at doctors – to soften the scales hurting to the person. For this purpose they use lipotropny means on the basis of vitamin U and a lipamid. As important part of treatment of an ichthyosis consider the actions directed on the general of the patient, among which reception of polyvitamins, high doses of iron and calcium, transfusion of plasma of blood, preparations on the basis of aloe extract.
If against an ichthyosis of people suffers from functional disorders of "thyroid gland", to it it is surely shown tireoidin, in case of damage of a pancreas – insulin. Hormonal therapy is connected only when deal with a congenital ichthyosis or its very started form. When the condition of the patient can be considered satisfactory, the quantity of the used hormones is reduced carefully up to their full cancellation. At a vyvorota of eyelids to the patient in eyes drip Retinolum acetate on an oil basis. If the patient - the child who is on , mothers appoint the same list of vitamin preparations, as to the kid.
Locally the condition of the skin "eaten" by an ichthyosis can be improved a little, if regularly to take baths with potassium permanganate, and after to grease affected areas with fat children's cream. Cream is replaced at will with means of own production: mix equal parts of lanolin with vaseline oil to a consistence of not really dense kremoobrazny weight. Salicylic vaseline and a concentrate of Retinolum in the form of oil will also be suitable for processing of dry skin.
The patient with an ichthyosis will be done good by medical doses of ultra-violet radiation, a tallasoterapiya, heliotherapy, carbonic, sulphidic and starched bathtubs. All these procedures stimulate a metabolism in a skin term. Between recurrence of a disease in the preventive purposes recommend silt and peat mud-therapy.
Prevention of a disease
Mirsovetov considers as the best prevention of an ichthyosis at future posterity genetic research even to pregnancy for the purpose of definition of degree of risk. Unfortunately, when pre-natal existence of a disease at a fruit confirms the analysis of amniotic liquid, pregnancy should be interrupted. Forecast of any form of this illness the extremely adverse: the ichthyosis, as a rule, is followed by a number of system diseases and violation of processes of a metabolism. Couple in which found high risk of the birth of the kid with an ichthyosis, needs to reflect on possible adoption of the child seriously.