One of the most widespread genres of journalistic creativity is an interview. Opening any newspaper, any magazine, you for certain will come across interview. Having turned on the TV and having stopped on news release, you will see a set of video interview. Documentaries also, as a rule, are under construction on an interview series, and not just by an offscreen voice of the leader. In this article InfoAdvisor.net tells how it is correct to interview, what reefs exist in work of the journalist interviewing someone gives advice, what technique to use in this or that concrete case.
It is a little theory
Let's stop on three main functions of journalism allowing to inform results of interview to readers. It, first of all:
- informing. Interview has to be informative, i.e. containing a number of the interesting facts, new questions and answers, differently the meaning of interviewing is lost;
- ideological function (i.e. promotion of the values accepted during the concrete period). It will be surely present, even if and in the veiled form;
- influence function when who interviews, consciously involves audience in process of development of the positive/negative relation to that occurs.
Interview is considered as a complex genre which includes informative, valuable osmyslitelnuyu and art activity. Cognitive activity defines such quality of the text of interview as documentation (in knowledge, informing, the public sense or essence of journalism is shown). Valuable osmyslitelnaya (ideological) activity assumes that at all stages of the activities for interview creation the journalist stays in a situation of valuable reconsideration of own activity (an interview plan, collection of information about the interviewed person, the concept and the analysis of interview, an embodiment in a language form, data processing). The journalist correlates information received from the interviewed person to values an akseosfer (system of values in a certain hierarchy), – this process is inevitable. Rather influencing function should telling that journalism, being closed with art activity, leans on its creative resources and uses them. I.e. real feelings and dialogue of the journalist and the interviewed person receive additional emotional and figurative additives.
The journalist in a case with interview tries to exclude himself from the created picture, i.e. as much as possible to lower the role in process, having provided a freedom of action to the interviewee to give to work an objective shade.
Interview as method of collection of information
As theoretical base it is possible to use the following scientific works for understanding of the matter: "You could not tell …" – in this book interviewing bases, "For the sake of the uniform word" V. Agranovsky (it is the scientific work published in the collection "The Second Most Ancient" - Moscow, the 1975th year), "An eternal confession" of S. Muratov (Moscow, the 1987th year), also works "Television acquaintance" (O. Urmas) and "Sweet-sour journalism" are stated to T. Shumilina (Moscow, the 1978th year) (M. Ponopolsky).
Classification of interview depends on extent of standardization of interview (standardization – preliminary development of interview, existence of ready questions and the assumption according to answers).Strictly standardized interview
in general can assume sending questions by e-mail to the one who is supposed to be interviewed. Answers also come by e-mail. Interview is, and live contact did not take place. In strictly standardized interview the formulation of questions and their sequence does not assume derogations from "general plan". Usually such interview is used at contact with officials, politicians, diplomats, pop stars (at such interview the journalist pursues, first of all, the volume of the received information, but not its quality). On a strict framework such interview can be compared to the questionnaire. Readers of InfoAdvisor.net have to understand that at such interview you should not count that the interviewed person will share with you some revelations.
Some journalists if conversation evades from the "standard" course, start resorting to a paraphrase of questions, interchange the position of them. At the exit the semi-standardized interview
turns out. Usually officials answer the questions "on a template": in the country everything is good, in my company everything is good, at negotiations everything was good, the meeting was successful, workers will get awards, it is necessary to recognize results of competitions positive and other. If "official" starts speaking not "on a template", there is a precedent of the semi-standardized interview more interesting to the reader and the edition.
In general, if you the free journalist (i.e. are not on the staff of any edition) to count that will buy your interview to somebody, it is not necessary. Your interview which is not planned by the edition, will buy only if questions are "pozaboristy" as editors speak. So happened to my interview: I interviewed Oleg Sudakov (he is the Manager, the ex-guitarist of "Civil defense", one of organizers of the Communism project, the leader of a rock group "Homeland", "grandfather" of the Siberian punk), but as all questions were only rock subjects, material was not accepted by the editor "New review" V. V. Pirogov (Omsk).
Except the standardized types exists also so-called "free" interview
when questions are not formed in advance and the received information – mix of revelations and unplanned answers. In the journalistic circle of such journalists capable freely to be guided on the course of interview and not to be lost, receiving the "strangest" answers, call "besedchik". For example, it is considered, what it is difficult to interview Mikhail Gorshenyov (the participant of a rock group "King and the clown") as he rather specifically communicates and does not answer " questions as you became well-known?" and "That such a punk rock, in your opinion?". To interview Mikhail Gorshenyov, it is necessary to be or his friend, or to understand a punk party not worse, than it that is not a duty of any journalist, of course.
I had a similar experience: I interviewed Alexander Chesnakov (the participant of a rock group "A collection of butterflies", the ex-guitarist of "Civil defense") who was also got on the career course by " questions as you became well-known". Our interview happened on the rehearsal base "Collections of Butterflies", I sometimes asked questions (time of interviewing coincided with anniversary of death of Egor Letov, on February 19, companion A. Chesnakov on creativity so questions, proceeding from the developed circumstances, was much). For me coincided some factors which made interview successful: first, the situation disposing to conversation, A. Chesnakov felt is weakened within studio, poured to me coffee, constantly laughed. Right there his companions on group, distracting from tools, sometimes approached, inserted the remarks into conversation. Secondly, I did not prepare questions in advance as absolutely knew a subject: I am old fans of "Civil defense" and "Collection of butterflies" so "silly questions" did not arise. I asked about interesting only to me aspects of creativity of rock groups therefore it was interesting also to me to ask, and – to answer A. Chesnakov (plus consider that fact that he needed to have a good time somehow during rehearsal). As a result very high-quality "free" interview turned out. However I considered also that fact that material will manage to be sold only in the specialized musical edition.
Classification of questions of interview
Let's give classification of questions of interview which any journalist has to know as skilled and beginning. In a form questions share on opened and closed.
The open question assumes existence of a subject and subject (for example, a question to the director of the company: "What salary of workers of the lowest link in your company?"). Such "open" questions are set to receive information maximum from the respondent. The closed questions (a question to the same director of the enterprise: "The economic crisis in the country promoted what salaries of workers of the lowest link at your enterprise such low?") have character specifying in relation to answers of the respondent.
On function in interview questions share on:
- the main (are prepared in advance, even in case of "free" interview the journalist holds them in the head as they bring the main array of information);
- probing (i.e. specifying, they concretize the main questions, sometimes them the main question breaks into some questions that the respondent was easier to answer);
- control (by means of these questions the journalist learns, whether the respondent possesses that information which wants to receive). Also by means of control questions all array of the received information is checked for reliability.
There is also such classification of questions of interview which divides them on personal (the question directly concerns only to the respondent, concerns aspects of his personality), impersonal and directing. The last are set only in critical cases, their quantity has to be minimum: the journalist has to remember that he should not do helps, and to perceive answers as additions to the main information.
Interviewing process stages
The most considerable stage, the interview process component defining success of further conversation – initial which includes:
- creation of a favorable image of the interviewer (i.e. the journalist has to make optimum impression on the respondent);
- creation of the correct idea of the purposes and problems of interview (sometimes the respondent should be calmed that you the journalist not from the "yellow edition" pursuing scandals and intrigues, and from the specialized musical edition, for example);
- creation of idea of the rights and the respondent's duties (i.e. during interview, for example, the respondent can not answer on his role on some questions if does not want, but in his interests to give reliable information about the personality or on the company if this interview to the director of the enterprise).
Process of creation of an image of the interviewer
is quite difficult: in society there were steady types of the journalist interviewer. For example, image of the thoughtless, annoying, superficial person. Journalists because of their isolation often are considered as "exclusive" people (i.e. isolated), because of it conversation sometimes is not glued. Sometimes journalists are perceived as official representatives of edition of the edition from what conclude what it is also necessary to keep with them officially. Often it is considered that the "exposing" materials journalists not so much help "humiliated and offended", how many harm to them. From here the recommendation for readers of InfoAdvisor.net who connect the future or real life with journalism: at once define, within what stereotype perceive you as journalist, whether there corresponds this perception to a concrete case (and to the interview purposes), if necessary try to expand idea of the respondent of yourself.
Let's list also motives for which the person can participate in interview: desire to be popular (or it is simple to appear on TV or pages of newspapers), desire to be uttered, something to correct desire or to punish someone.
Remember motives which can counteract the course of your interview, try to avoid them: the purpose of interview seems insignificant, the contents – uninteresting; of the interviewee are contrary to the journalist's purposes; relationship with the journalist is deprived of positive sense owing to prejudice.
Let's address to creation of idea of a role of the interviewed person
in conversation. For this purpose there are some simple journalistic receptions. At first simple questions are set (promote overcoming of a psychological barrier). Conversation needs to be developed gradually, i.e. to pass from simple to difficult, plus to let to the respondent know that his role in interview – passive, leading "player" is the journalist (otherwise you receive that information which the respondent, but not that which you want to receive wants to give).
Let's list the reasons of "failure" conversation. This, first, uncertain conversation, frequent halts, in general is the wrong voice training, i.e. tongue-tie. A voice – one of the main tools of journalistic activity (it does not belong only to TV and radio). Secondly, it is superficial, boring (trivial) questions from which fills up not only the respondent, but also the journalist. Thirdly, the explosive personality tries to draw "blanket" on herself. I was convinced of it on a personal example when interviewed Evgeny Filatov (he is "Jeff", the representative of the first Omsk Rock club) when I constantly lost a conversation thread, and the respondent got off on personal memoirs. Fourthly, the failure of interview happens if the journalist does not know the interview purpose, insufficiently well for it was prepared.
It is necessary to remember that if leading into interview passed to the respondent, it is necessary to change, for example, the location, and then to interrupt the respondent's monologue with sharp change of the course of conversation.
After a tie and development of conversation there comes the final stage of interview – the conclusion of conversation.
During interview it is necessary to observe, i.e. to fix data during conversation. For this purpose all three main methods will approach: notebook, dictophone, memory.
When I did not take a dictophone on conversation with Oleg Sudakov, he very much was surprised to it and told that I can incorrectly give him to thought. Alexander Chesnakov, on the contrary, was surprised that I write down his answers to a dictophone, having told about it that 50 percent of that information which it gave me – information "between us telling", and therefore I can bother especially with exact transfer of its monologues (in his opinion, the best tool in work of the journalist interviewer is his memory).
In summary it would be desirable to tell that interview – quite highly paid material type in journalism. It thus that from you is not required anything else, except how to be prepared for interview and to decipher an audio recording after the conversation. Plus to take pictures: and here material is ready. 1500-2500 rubles pay for an interview strip even in average regional editions. While on writing of qualitative article at you a time 3-4 days leave, interview is 3-4 hours and the guaranteed good fee. Besides this good help in search of contacts: when you interview some hundreds and you will have a wide experience in this case, you will have also big base under the name "To Whom I Talked", including in this "base" for certain there will be some celebrities. Work as the journalist has many pluses, such as admission in any party. To interview and become part of a party of a rock group of "BI-2", for example, you should call their press attache or the director of public relations and to agree about interview. Believe, people from show business need untwisting of the persons not less, than the audience is interested in information on them.