Characteristic of a basil
The plant relating to family yasnotkovy still call "an imperial grass", "tuls", raykhony, reykhany or Reagan. It is a magnificent bush which height depending on a grade can be from 15 to 80 cm. Leaves can be not only gentle and lime, but also emerald-green, violet, dark and claret. Coloring of florets is various – from white, greenish, pinkish and to lilacky and even violet. Plant very thermophilic. Young escapes do not transfer frosts, they are afraid and low above-zero temperature. Well develops at a temperature from 20 to 28 degrees. The basil perfectly approaches salads (with , a sweet pepper, cucumbers), pizzas, conservations, sauces, marinades, meat, fish dishes. Thanks to modern grades and nuances of aroma of area of use of Reagan considerably extended. Now at a basil can be not only gvozdichny and peppery tastes, but also lemon, mint, caramel, vanilla shades, they allow to add spice to cocktails, jelly, drinks, sweets.
We choose a basil grade
Many believe that the basil has only two forms: zelenolistny and violet. But now more than thirty grades differing on appearance, coloring, tastes and aroma are removed by selectors already. And were engaged in removal of hybrid grades, since ninetieth years of the last century, having taken two basic look:
- Blue (violet) – "Yerevan", "Baku".
- Zelenolistny ("Lozhkovidny").
Now in kitchen gardens and on window sills it is possible to meet not only "standard" grades, but also the hybrids surprising with the fragrant notes and tastes. Here some grades which are actively used or gaining popularity:
- "Yerevan" – an old, early ripening variety. Height at a plant from 40 to 60 cm, leaves intensively violet, large, smooth. If escapes are cut off, new grow in 25 days. Aroma very resistant, it is possible to catch notes of allspice and tea.
- "Lozhkovidny" - at this plant leaves are really similar to a spoon as they are bent inside. Bushes well branch, on them there are a lot of green leaves, their aroma – mix of bay leaf and a carnation.
- "Table" - very fragrant plant with the light green, quite large, juicy, gentle leaves having an ovoid form. In height reaches at times 60 cm. The grade of srednepozdniya, white flowers appear in two months after detection of shoots (or a bit later).
- "Caramel" - a sprawling plant, srednerosly, has a smell of fruit caramel, is suitable for desserts. A grade mid-season, it is recommended to grow up in the rassadny way.
- "Anisic aroma" is a semi-sprawling plant with green, slabopuzyrchaty leaves it is necessary on temper to those who loves an anisic smell and taste.
- "Lemon aroma" - a semi-sprawling bush of an average "boring", leaflets light green, the average sizes, are impregnated with aroma of a lemon. Is suitable for tea, drinks, desserts. It is recommended to those who suffers from frequent and respiratory infections.
- "Gvozdichny aroma" is a plant more compact, low, leaflets at it small, green as it is already clear from the name – fragrance gvozdichny.
- "Basilisk" - the early ripening variety giving compact bushes with green leaves and bright peppery gvozdichnym aroma.
- "Philosopher" - carry to early ripe grades, from emergence of shoots to the first violet flowers passes from 45 to 50 days. Bright antotsianovy coloring grows to 30 cm, at leaves. Aroma intensive, gvozdichny.
- "The Russian athlete" (violet or green) – a mid-season grade, at plants very saturated aroma with presence of notes of a carnation. Leaves large, elongated and ovoid, are a weak puzyrchatost, their color violet or green. A look bushes compact, height have up to 40 cm. They beautifully look on a kitchen window sill.
- "The Thai queen" - it is possible to call this grade the most beautiful of numerous types of a basil. Aroma at it classical, but magnificent dark green fifty-centimetric bushes with the large inflorescences reminding lilac clusters leave nobody indifferent. This grade received a gold medal for the smart decorative characteristics at the Fleroselect exhibition. Having put him on the garden bed, in a flowerpot or a house pot, you will receive spicy leaves and to enjoy its beauty.
Let's be engaged in seedling
Seeds of a basil start sprouting, when temperature of a soil layer not less than 14 degrees. Therefore to receive magnificent bushes of these spicy greens, in a midland it is preferable to grow up it in the rassadny way. In warm regions it is possible to carry out landing of seeds at once on beds, but to do it it is necessary in later terms, depending on weather. Seeds on seedling sow approximately in 40-45 days prior to estimated date of disembarkation in a kitchen garden. In advance prepare small glasses, boxes or plastic containers and soil. We usually are engaged in crops last decade of March or in the first days of April. Previously well we moisten soil with warm water, then we display small seeds on depth to 10 mm in holes or grooves. We powder with the earth, we cover capacity with a film or a package. We put to the warm room on a window sill. It is desirable that temperature in the room was 25-27 degrees, then shoots will seem within ten days. If is more cool, shoots it is necessary to wait for about fourteen days. When at seedlings is on some leaflets, it is possible to make sword-play. In May young plants can be taken out on a balcony or to put to the greenhouse that they gradually became tempered, got used to new conditions. If development of seedlings goes not really well, it is possible to feed up them.
And now on a bed
For a basil it is better to pick up such bed which will well get warm the sun. It has to be protected from streams of a wind and drafts. Good harvests turn out on the easy supeschanik who are generously filled with organic chemistry. It is recommended to put a basil on those beds where grew in last season bean, cucumbers, potatoes, tomatoes – after all under these cultures organic fertilizers are steadily introduced. If there is an opportunity, it is better to carry out the initial stages of preparation of a bed for a basil even in the fall. The place should be dug up on depth of 20 cm (or a little more) and to fertilize. On square meter fifteen grams of potash salt and twenty five grams of superphosphate there are enough three kilograms of humus or compost.
Directly we send to beds of basilicas only when threat of returnable frosts completely passes. Usually it happens in the rage from May 15 till June 30. If the spring is cold, it is necessary to leave long fairly grown up seedling in the greenhouse, and to be engaged in change only at the beginning of June. Between plants try to leave on 25 cm and if bushes according to the description of a grade have to be low and compact, the distance can be made less. We do holes 8 cm in depth, in everyone we pour out on liter of warm water when it is absorbed, we place seedling in a hole. Watch that the central kidney and the lower leaves remained on a soil surface. In the first days of adaptation on a bed water the basil every day. Then humidify the earth only as required. Still weeding, loosening of the earth round bushes is important for this culture. When there are flowers, it is better to tear off them. At desire it is possible to leave flowers on one plant that in the fall to collect mature seeds, sometimes they are produced by self-sowing. Do not allow remoistening of the soil and a zagushchennost, differently the basil will be surprised a gray mold. When escapes grow to length of 12 cm, start them cutting off for culinary dishes and the medical purposes. At cut leave on a branch below on four leaflets, then the bush will branch more strongly, giving new green material. If do not manage to spend everything, some time of basilicas can lie down in the refrigerator on the shelf. And it is possible to freeze it in the freezer, previously having washed up and having dried on a table. Other option - the connected bunches to suspend for drying on an attic or in kitchen, the main thing that on them direct beams of the sun did not get. We crush dry spice and we display on pure glass jars for further storage and use in winter time.
Not to lose aroma, densely close jars covers. Mirsovetov will add that if will sow seeds directly in grooves on a bed, choose time at the very end of May, and at first spill deepenings in the earth solution with addition of "Energen". It is a growth factor thanks to which shoots will quicker seem, will not decay in the earth. One ampoule gets divorced in five liters of hot water (40 degrees).
Basil on a window sill
There are some options of cultivation of a basil in house conditions:
- It is possible to transfer from an open ground the created bush (together with an earth lump) and to place it in a suitable pot. Usually so gardeners in August if the basil only just started blossoming do, and there are a wish to enjoy further in autumn days greens and aroma.
- It is possible to cut off from a bush a shank – a verkhushechka or lateral escape, to put in water and to wait until it gives backs. Then to put him in a pot. Approximately in two or three weeks it will be already possible "to pinch" leaflets for vegetable salad. Month three plant will give you spicy greens.
- Some admirers of a basil grow up it on a window sill from seeds. The bush usually develops for 8-12 months. It is possible to grow up houses of basilicas all the year round. But in winter months it should be dosvechivat (in gloomy days and evening hours).
We usually sow seeds in March, having chosen such period, when the Moon "growing". We take the container or a pot, we stack a good layer of a drainage 2 cm high (that excess moisture left down and flew down in the pallet) on a bottom, and then we fill container with ready soil from gardening shop. We spill the soil warm water. Then we display seeds on holes, which height of 10 mm. It is possible to take at first seeds in warm solution of potassium permanganate (crimson-violet) within two hours. Between holes we leave on 7 cm. Well grow in room conditions of a grade: "Aramis", "Marquis", "The Russian athlete", "Osmín", "Basilisk", "Balkonstar", "Gvozdichny aroma", "The Thai beauty".
After holes were covered with earth, we close capacity food wrap. We remove it only when we see green boring. If in the room hot (22-27 degrees), shoots appear in 8 days. The window sill on which will grow then of basilicas, by all means has to be solar, warm, after all his ancestors "arrived" to Russia from subtropics. We water a basil often, nearly an every day. When there is a heat, daily spray the odorous plants. Important point: watering should be carried out in the morning! Protect the bushes from drafts. That air well got into soil layers, two times a week the earth in a pot loosen. If stalks thin, it is not enough branches, perhaps, the soil got to you not really fertile. Then the situation can be corrected, feeding up plants of times in 30 days fertilizers where there are humates and organic compost. Approximately in a month after emergence of tiny shoots it will be possible to start cutting off branches at a young bush, leaving below on three leaflets, then from their bosoms new escapes will actively go to growth. For a kushcheniye it is allowed to prishchipyvat a bush verkhushechka.
Having lodged on the kitchen garden of basilicas, you will provide the family with fragrant refined spice, will be able to use it and as medicine. And still protect the put cultures from a plant louse and web pincers nearby.