The problem of flu and, in particular, its bird's version lately is widely exaggerated in the press, and according to some, simply became a subject of speculation whether on pharmaceutical, whether on poultry-farming the markets - on the first making profit, on the second - ruining...
The head of the department of infectious diseases of the Crimean medical university of S. I. Georgiyevsky associate professor P. S. Arshinov and the head of the department of microbiology, virology and immunology professor YU.L, Krivorutchenko took part in discussion of a question. We bring to your attention their opinions.
The new human viruses of flu capable to cause a pandemic, is a result of mutations and recombinations. In a case with viruses the majority of mutants perishes as they lose, but do not get something useful. However some mutations just allow a virus of flu to be late in human population or at other owners. And here the recombination — is resorting of genetic material which already existed in praroditelsky options of a virus earlier. Having infected the same cell of the owner, genes from one praroditelsky strain mix up with genes of another, forming posterity with symptoms of both initial viruses. The hybrid individual turns out: separate genetic blocks do not undergo changes, but here the unusual combination of these blocks creates a new product.
The recombination is considered the main tool of an origin of new strains. When changes happen quickly, as a result there is something unprecedented earlier — including, the most dangerous pandemic options of a virus of flu. Recombinations do population of mankind which is adapted, for earlier existing strains, absolutely insolvent. Biological "kitchen" on creation of such virus killer generally settles down in Southeast Asia, but gradually there are emissions and in other regions of the world — for example, and Russia where the outbreaks of flu at poultry were already registered.
Virus of bird flu
It is well-known that the poultry is ill with much higher level of legality, than wild which is considered the natural natural tank of viruses of flu. As a rule, viruses are transmitted with excrements. In places of mass nesting the virus can be found in water in high concentration. It is very actual for the Crimea. Ornithologists call our peninsula – "the bird's station", "junction" in migration of birds besides on Sivash and Swan islands feathery winter.
To the Crimea, as well as in general in Black Sea Coast, together with birds strains from Asia can get. Judging by not really systematized messages, in the Black Sea countries virus options, similar that in Asia caused mass death of animals and people, with gemagglyutininy H5, H7 and H9 are recorded.
The virus developed in the countries which are near Ukraine: in Romania; there were messages on Turkey, however, then from Turkey objections followed. In any case, in the territory of Russia this virus developed, and animals are ill.
The problem in that in many countries still there are no standard test systems which would allow to register, whether those is virus strains which were found in Asia. Still final comparative analysis is not made, a lot of things are not clear. And, perhaps, it will not be clear until the mass death of birds, with infection from these birds of pigs and other mammals begins.
Virus of flu of pigs
Originality of pigs that their many immune reactions and other physiological characteristics are very similar to the human — are more similar, than at other animals. Originally a virus including flu, adapts for pigs, than for the person easier. Pigs – the intermediate stage at which the virus reaches in the transformation a state when there can be its such option which will be able to extend in human population (that is - from the person to the person). Such way of adaptation through pigs, according to the American and English scientists who carried out the retrospective genetic analysis passed the virus which called well-known "Spaniard". Thus, the history can repeat... A difference only that knowledge of this infection, of the nature of a virus and in general approaches to prevention of flu now considerably changed. People expect epidemic, more consciously are going to resist to it...
And to be afraid to eat actually that!
Pandemic and flu epidemic
By recognition of most of scientists, the pandemic after all will arise. A question only in, when: this year either in the following, or in some years?. And, above all: what will be a lethality for people? Forecasts as it seems to me, are a little hypertrophied: Americans, for example, consider that if there will be a pandemic, in the USA hundreds of thousands people will die. Such forecasts rely on results of former epidemics and are to some extent urged to guard the population and the authorities of the states; in it also political and commercial risk is put.
It is natural when there are such questions as global epidemic, the political interests of the different countries and big money connected with production of vaccines and their purchases in national scales, the income of firms which are made by diagnostic system and medical preparations are used.
Ukraine, as well as any other state, will not be able to samoizolirovatsya, therefore as the scientist-theorist, I can tell: if with new flu the whole world gets sick, in Ukraine epidemic happens too. If the specific vaccine is not developed, certainly, most of people will get sick. Bird flu vaccines are not present today, in exchange some experts suggest to use vaccines against the options of a virus of flu circulating at people earlier. In it there is a logic; recombinant strains have in themselves part of genes of primogenitors including human (and close to them) Thus, a human virus vaccine with gemagglyutininy H1 will theoretically partially protect, but from what? It is unlikely from the infection fact – but the level of a lethality and heavy complications can be reduced.
Prevention of bird flu
Concerning meat. Meat of hens can be eaten, but it needs to be boiled or fried properly. The flu virus almost instantly perishes at a temperature of 100 degrees and above, but remains at a freezing.
Usual prophylactics and treatments of flu and the related symptoms can be useful. But Pavel Spiridonovich of ARSHINS - the head of the department of infectious diseases of the Crimean medical university of S. I. Georgiyevsky, the associate professor will tell about it.
Prevention of flu
Flu – an acute infectious disease and its prevention demands from us special attention.
The mankind faces flu constantly more than 1000. According to the academician V. M. Zhdanov, the mankind endured about 500 epidemics and not less than 13 pandemics of flu caused generally by a virus of flu of A type which not only is capable to change the anti-genes constantly about this period but also to replace them. Thus it possesses a vidospetsifichnost: as a rule, the virus of birds cannot affect a pig or the person, and vice versa. Because of small stability the virus is transferred in environment in the airborne way and transplatsentarno, having teratogenny effect.
It is important to carry out prevention of flu among those age categories which most strongly are subject to it. Especially often incidence is observed at children till 5 years and at persons is more senior than 65 years. The indicator of mortality from flu fluctuates from 0,01 to 0,2 percent in the period of epidemic, in the period of a pandemic it significantly increases. In 1918-1919 from flu was lost, according to different data, from 20 to 40-50 million people. Considering that in Ukraine in 2003 soda 1 million 143 thousand people, and in 2004 - about 2 million people got sick, - in 2005-2006 the next epidemic with circulation of new viruses of A type — "California" H3N2 which flu of type "B" – "Shanghai" can join is expected.
Except human flu in the world there are other types of a virus of flu A which especially often strike birds (H.7N7, H7N2, H5N1, etc.), and since December, 2003 diseases of persons at contact infection were noted, with various clinical manifestations: from lungs - in the Netherlands to heavy - with death of 62-67 people - in the region where lives about 2,5 billion people (Southeast Asia). People get sick at direct contact with authentically sick birds. Transmissions of infection of bird flu from the person to the person it was not noted. Thus, bird flu is a serious veterinary, but not medical problem.
There are two theories of variability of flu. One of them pays the main attention to a recombination of viruses of flu, and another - is based on retsiklichesky emergence of a virus in human population. This question are still insufficiently studied.
The main method of prevention of flu are annual inoculations. Vaccines are developed, and their structure changes depending on anti-gene structure of an estimated strain of flu A which, perhaps, will cause epidemic or a pandemic.
From all vaccines, considering even small probability of emergence of bird flu in structure of diseases of people, the split vaccines (Split vaccine) flyuoriks and vaksigripp which, unlike subjedinichny (influ-vak), include not 2 anti-genes, but 6 anti-genes (2 external and 4 internal) more approach that allows immune system of the person to create quicker and more tensely immunity that to some extent can matter for creation of cross immunity to bird flu – in case of its possible emergence.
Prevention of flu the split vaccines needs to be carried out in November beginning of December that by the beginning of rise in incidence of ORVZ (the end of December-January) at the most part of the population immunity was created. According to the French doctors, the split vaccines by 2,6 times reduced incidence of ORVZ of other etiology.
Treatment of flu
What can be offered treatment of flu? – amantadin and remantadin, oseltamivir. It should be noted that to remantadin sensitivity of flu A decreased recently, and it is forbidden to use for treatment of children till 14 years as it is capable as it appeared to cause changes in TsNS. There was on sale an arbidol which it is used for treatment of flu in a dose of 400 mg/days in 2 receptions within 3-5 days, and for prevention – on 200 mg/days with an interval 3-4 days, course duration – 3-4 weeks. Arbidol reduces risk of incidence of flu and ORVZ by 2,6-3,2 times, shortens illness duration for 2-2,5 days and reduces the frequency of post-influenzal complications twice. Other inductors of interferon, and also – , plentiful drink, etc. can be used (and all this is according to the recommendation of the doctor). Antibiotics at flu should be applied very carefully, paying attention to age: to children – only since 6 months, to adult patients – after 65 years.
For strengthening of immunity the tempering procedures, observance usual sanitary and hygienic norms, obligatory walks on air are recommended. Try to avoid also stresses, normally to eat. Vitamins including vitamin C, use, but it is careful – a short course and small doses (there is an opinion of experts that surplus of vitamins can be more harmful, than their small shortcoming). At flu do not take alcohol in the "medical" purposes at all: flu – not cold, but an infectious viral disease. Try to limit participation in actions with a big congestion of people – someone from them can be infected and not know about it (as signs were not shown yet), so, to be a disease carrier. Constantly switched on conditioner also does not promote health – better to a thicket air the room. Limit movements in public transport – whenever possible, at least part of a way to work (study) and from work walk. At the first symptoms of a disease stop contacts with people around, call the doctor, observe a bed rest.
Protect the health!