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Diabetes at children

It is unpleasant when we are ill, adults. When our children - terribly are ill. And if diagnosed diabetes for the child, parents have to get it together and do everything possible that their kid led full-fledged life, remembering the illness as seldom as possible.

What do we know about insulin?

That the person felt fresh also full of strength, the organism needs "to be recharged" constantly, splitting glucose on the making substances. And there is an energy charge, necessary for good health. Most well the essence of diabetes can be characterized so: the disease develops when to an organism not in power to process glucose disintegration products.

Insulin is made special group of cells of a pancreas - Langergans's islands. This substance delivers glucose directly in a cage where it also will be transformed to energy. Quantitative indices of insulin in an organism are not static, they change very quickly - nearly an every minute. There is a lot of factors influencing development of this substance. For example, when the person eats something, the level of insulin increases, and during a dream, on the contrary, decreases. Also some medicines are capable to reduce turns of production of insulin in an organism.

When sugar (glucose) appears in an organism, in blood there is a sharp jump of its concentration up - and has to be. After a while pancreatic islands of Langergans develop insulin thanks to which glucose is absorbed by organism cages, therefore, concentration of sugar in blood decreases. In general the organism spends for sugar processing process about 2 hours. Normal indicators of glucose at which insulin is not developed, make 3,3–5,5 mmol/l.

What is diabetes

This the chronic, very reluctantly giving in to treatment, serious illness. Allocate two of its types - I and II.

Children, especially small, most often have diabetes of I, insulin-dependent, type. At this form of a disease cages, responsible for production of insulin, are surprised. It is easy to guess that occurs in an organism at this time: those units of insulin that the pancreas could make, do not manage to carry sugar to destination - a large amount of unspent glucose continues to circulate in blood.

Diabetes of the II type - insulinonezavisimy. Insulin it is developed so much, how many it is necessary, but receptors of cages do not react to it and as a result do not incorporate inside glucose from blood.

Why there is a diabetes

There are many reasons of development of an illness. Here the main of them:

  1. Hereditary factor. The children born in families of diabetics have a probability at once to be born with this disease or to ache with it many years later. Information on number of manufacturing cells of insulin is programmed in a chain of DNA of our posterity in advance. It means that the parents having diabetes (especially both) in 85% of cases will have a child with the same problem. In certain cases the high level of glucose in blood at his mother during pregnancy becomes the reason of development of diabetes in the kid after the birth. Sugar through the general blood-groove freely gets to an organism of the child for which this "sweet" it is necessary very little. As a result the fruit has an excess of glucose which accumulates in an organism in the form of fat. Such children are born very large, with body weight more than 5 kg.
  2. Regular overeating. If the child often and in large quantities eats the chocolate, pastries, various products containing sugar, the pancreas works twice more. It means that the cages developing insulin quickly "are tired" and the amount of the made insulin starts decreasing soon.
  3. Extra kilos - the real trap for glucose. The sugar which in time is not spent is postponed as excess fat in hypodermic and fatty cellulose of an organism. It prevents receptors of cages to distinguish the insulin bearing glucose. As a result, even if the pancreas develops normal amount of insulin, sugar level in blood the very high.
  4. Life without sport. The inactive way of life not only promotes emergence of excess weight, but also forces industrial complex of insulin to reduce turns because of what the amount of glucose inevitably grows in blood.
  5. The immunity weakened by frequent catarrhal diseases. The immune system for protection of an organism against viruses and infections develops special antibodies. If it has to work too actively, say, because of frequent or long colds, sooner or later antibodies will start being formed constantly. Without having found the potential targets (viruses and bacteria), antibodies "will undertake" own cages of an organism. The pancreas that will inevitably lead to decrease in amount of insulin in blood can become a subject of their attack.

Manifestations of diabetes at children

The following symptoms have to guard parents:

  1. Strong thirst without the reason. The kid is constantly thirsty - regardless of a season and time of day.
  2. The child often goes to a toilet "on small". The healthy kid pisat on average 5-6 times a day, number of urinations at the children sick with diabetes, hesitates from 10 to 20 times per day. Enuresis is often observed (an urine incontience at night). It is explained by feature of attract glucose to itself water therefore the volume of urine increases, and with urine the organism emits excess sugar.
  3. Dry skin, dryness of mucous membranes. In the child's organism because of an illness large volume of water concentrates. From where it arrives? Besides, that the child drinks much, the intercellular space of integuments and mucous also emits liquid which at first gets to blood, and then is allocated with urine.
  4. The child considerably loses flesh. Cages, receiving less glucose, lose good nutrition and energy.
  5. At the child eyesight is damaged. Excess sugar can remain in an organism not only in the form of fat - it can collect in kidneys, blood vessels and a crystalline lens of an eye because of what there is its turbidity and visual acuity falls.
  6. Constant weakness and fast fatigue. The growing organism does not have enough energy: such children difficult are given study, they lag behind in physical development contemporaries, they are hurt often by the head.

Babies suspicion on diabetes can have following features:

  • disorders of digestion - vomiting, locks or, on the contrary, diarrhea;
  • uneasiness;
  • the child very often and long sucks a breast.

Diagnosis of a disease at children

  1. Blood test on sugar. The norm makes 3,3–5,5 mmol/l. Indicators of 7,6 mmol/l and speak about diabetes above. If glucose level in blood is increased to 7,5 mmol/l, at the child, perhaps, the hidden form of a disease.
  2. The Glyukozotolerantny test is used for final specification of the diagnosis.
  3. Besides, carry out ultrasonography of a pancreas to exclude inflammatory processes in body.

Treatment of diabetes at children

The doctor-endocrinologist deals with a problem of diabetes. The type of diabetes defines features of its treatment.

Treatment of diabetes of the I type.

Practically all children have diabetes of this type. In treatment replacement therapy is fundamental: the missing amount of insulin in blood needs to be filled.

Insulin which is applied in children's practice of treatment has to be not prolonged (short) action. As the most suitable in this plan it is possible to consider the preparations Protofan and Aktropid. They are entered hypodermically through special syringes handles. This form of introduction of medicine is very convenient for the child: he can fill a syringe, establish a dose for introduction and give to himself an injection.

Unfortunately, the science did not develop medicine for full treatment from diabetes yet. But it not a sentence, and more likely need of constant parental control over health of the kid. It is very important to organize healthy nutrition for the child. Refuse flatly from:

  • spicy and fried food;
  • sweet and flour;
  • pasta and some grain;
  • potatoes.

Every day by means of a glyukometr watch sugar level in blood.

Treatment of diabetes of the II type.

The organism of the child develops enough insulin, but cages do not "notice" it therefore the main thing in treatment of diabetes of this type - to avoid sharp jump of glucose in blood.

For this purpose at all forget about the so-called easily acquired carbohydrates: sugar, chocolate, flour. The volume of other carbohydrates significantly cut down. For convenience the food is measured by grain units. This such quantity of a product which contains 12 g of carbohydrates. From one grain unit sugar level in blood increases by 2,2 mmol/l.

To keep diabetes under control, eat regularly and often - more than 6 times a day.

The prevention of diabetes at children is sure: even if in a family there are no occasions to be afraid for health of the child concerning diabetes (there is no genetic factor etc.), you should not refuse prevention measures. Unfortunately, anybody is not insured for 100% of this disease. Rules are very simple:

  • not to overeat;
  • there is a farinaceous food in more, than modest quantities;
  • to control amount of the eaten sugar;
  • to know about sport firsthand;
  • to be engaged in prevention of catarrhal diseases.
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