Tuberculosis is widespread in Russia. The most frequent pulmonary form of this develops at people with the weakened immunity – their organism is not capable to resist to an infection. It is possible to catch at contact with the sick person: mikobakteriya of tuberculosis get to air with cough, sneezing of the patient. Especially tuberculosis and becomes aggravated in the spring in the fall, during these periods infection is most probable.
Symptoms of tuberculosis are: constantly increased temperature (not higher than 38C), , loss of weight, lack of appetite, cough (as dry, and with a phlegm, with blood in a phlegm), short wind, sweating at night. There are differences of mood, irritability, decrease in working capacity. Only 1-2 symptoms can be shown, and it will be optional it is cough. Therefore at emergence of one of the listed symptoms of InfoAdvisor.net it recommends not to be treated independently, and to address to the doctor in time to diagnose possible tuberculosis and to begin its timely treatment.
The simplest check on tuberculosis – reaction to Mant. In 72 hours after test Manta can be defined, whether there is in an organism a tuberculosis infection. However this method possesses very low accuracy.
Research of dabs under a microscope too cannot be a standard: it is easy to mix a mikobakteriya of tuberculosis with other species of bacteria and to take out the incorrect diagnosis.
Crops of a phlegm often help to diagnose tuberculosis, however bacteria of tuberculosis "grow" not always therefore and there is a risk in a false manner of the negative analysis.
Most often, for want of something better, for inspection on tuberculosis use a usual X-ray of lungs and survey of the patient.
In specialized clinic it is possible to make definition of a caption of antibodies to tuberculosis. This method allows to reveal existence of immunity to tuberculosis and to find out, whether the carried-out vaccination was effective. Reliability – about 75%.
The most modern method – PCR (polimerazny chain reaction). It is DNA diagnostics when on the analysis the patient's phlegm undertakes. The result can be known in 3 days, reliability – 95-100%.
Treatment of tuberculosis
It is independently impossible to treat tuberculosis — at uncontrollable drug intake at Koch's stick (a tuberculosis mikobakteriya) resistance to drugs develops and it becomes much more difficult to cure tuberculosis.
Treatment usual (sensitive to drugs) tuberculosis takes not less than 6 months, and is sometimes tightened till 2 years. For oppression of an infection therapy has to be carried out systematically, without pauses, then tuberculosis will not be able to progress.
When tuberculosis is revealed, the patient place in a hospital where he spends about two months — active allocation of bacteria of tuberculosis during this time stops. When the patient ceases to represent threat for health of people around, treatment proceeds on an outpatient basis.
Treatment of usual tuberculosis is carried out according to a certain scheme, such preparations as an isoniazid, rifampicin, pirazinamid, streptomycin and etambutol enter it. The doctor selects an individual combination of preparations which the patient will have to accept within 2-3 months, treatment takes place in a hospital. If after this time treatment did not bring due effect or effect very weak that is caused by resistance of an infection to this or that preparation, corresponding changes are made to chemotherapy. In such cases one or several preparations are replaced or the way of their introduction changes (intravenously, it is inhalation). If, on the contrary, after 2-3 months of administration of drugs the positive effect is observed, within the next 4 months appoint only an isoniazid and rifampicin. Upon termination of a course of treatment of the patient again makes tests and if Koch's stick is revealed, so tuberculosis passed into a medicinal and steady form.
Treatment of a form of tuberculosis, steady against drugs, is tightened for years. Depending on the tuberculosis bacterium is steady against what preparations, to the main preparations (an isoniazid, rifampicin) add so-called preparations of the second row – ofloksatsin, kapriomitsin, etionamid, tsikloserin, pask. Preparations of the second row are much more expensive, than them about $10 000 can cost usual tuberculosis medicine, and treatment. It is possible to accept these preparations only in a complex, differently there will be no effect. InfoAdvisor.net intentionally does not publish the scheme of reception of these preparations as uncontrolled treatment forms full stability of bacteria and absolute incurability of tuberculosis.
Surgical intervention to treatment of tuberculosis is applied extremely seldom because efficiency of this method is very low.
Earlier the integral element of treatment of tuberculosis was sanatorium treatment. Today treatment in sanatoria is only additional means of fight against an illness. But if the patient refuses hospitalization when it is really necessary, the medical institution has the right through court to direct the patient on obligatory treatment in antitubercular clinic. This practice is applied everywhere to treatment of irresponsible patients and ensuring health of the nation.
In treatment of an illness the healthy nutrition is of great importance. Meat, fish dishes, vegetables and fruit have to enter a diet of the patient. Alcohol and smoking are categorically contraindicated. As the patient often loses appetite at tuberculosis, it is recommended to eat products vitamin-rich which have property to stimulate appetite: dogrose infusion, cod-liver oil, curdled milk, kefir.
If the person possesses strong immunity, after infection he does not get sick at once, and remains almost healthy though the infection continues to remain in an organism. So can proceed all life and so never and not to pour out in tuberculosis.
The strong stress, lack of food, long hard drinkings can be an incitement to development of tuberculosis. Most of people do not even suspect that carry in the organism Koch's stick. Therefore try to support always the health in norm that already in itself will counteract development of an illness. InfoAdvisor.net can calm you: usual cold causes decrease in immunity, but it is not enough to start tuberculosis. That Koch's stick started breeding, easing of immunity has to be long and be combined with bad living conditions — low-quality food, a lack of fresh air, a hard work in the polluted rooms.
Prevention of tuberculosis
Tuberculosis — an illness of poverty and insanitary conditions. To save herself from this illness, it is necessary to care of the — strong immunity is able to win independently against Koch's stick if that gets to an organism. That immunity could cope with the illness, it is necessary to eat, accept qualitatively and variously vitamins, to walk and play much any sports. The leading role in distribution of medicinal and steady tuberculosis is played by prisons. Treatment of prisoners is often carried out incorrectly or patients incorrectly take medicine and as a result tuberculosis with multiple medicinal stability extends in a geometrical progression.
Getting to air, Koch's stick keeps viability within 10 days – for example, in street dust. But in the absence of a sunlight of a bacterium live much more long – some months.
It is possible to catch only at inhalation of air in which there are microscopically small droplets of a saliva and the patient's phlegm. There will be an infection or not — depends on what quantity of bacteria got to lungs, will be able to suppress an organism them or not. If long time to be in one room with the patient danger to catch increases many times — for this reason tuberculosis in prisons so "blossoms". The worse the room is aired, the more long bacteria remain in air.
It is impossible to catch at handshake with the patient on the street. But indoors, where air is almost not mobile, tactile contact and use of the general subjects of use considerably increase risk of infection.
The person can get sick with tuberculosis, eating milk from the cows sick with tuberculosis. InfoAdvisor.net recommends: do not buy milk "at hostesses" who trade in the places which are not intended for trade — their goods do not pass sanitary and epidemiologic control and nobody guarantees you safety of their products.
Culture of communication
If among your acquaintances there is someone who is sick with tuberculosis, be tolerant to it. The person for certain suffers from that all people around jump aside aside, hardly he will cough. Of course, it is terrible to all of us to ache with tuberculosis, but it is necessary to remember that the normal conscious person will never begin to appear in society, knowing that is dangerous to people around. Therefore patients who work or study with other people, most likely, cannot infect anybody. Very often people even after successful treatment of an illness for many years suffer from unfairly fastidious relation of people around. Of course, anywhere you will not hide natural fastidiousness and fear to catch but if to you dropped out to communicate with the person who had tuberculosis, InfoAdvisor.net advises nevertheless to try, find forces not to show the attitude to his already former illness, do not offend him the relation.