Diabetes arises when the pancreas for the reasons unknown to science ceases to develop the necessary amount of insulin. It is diabetes of the first type — insulin-dependent. However, diabetes of the second type meets more often — when insulin in an organism activity of insulin the very low is developed enough, but. Low activity of insulin is caused by a large amount of fatty tissue which has low sensitivity to insulin. It is characteristic that with diabetes of 1 type people till 40 years get sick more often, and diabetes 2 types affects people is more senior than 50 years more often.
The reasons of development of diabetes too are unknown precisely. It is clear only that if parents have diabetes, the child will get sick almost for certain, hereditary predisposition plays large role in a disease of diabetes.
The second factor causing diabetes is obesity. If to watch the weight, it is possible to reduce risk of development of diabetes strongly.
The third reason — pancreas diseases, such as , a pancreas cancer, etc.
In addition, InfoAdvisor.net would like to pay attention that the stress too can be the cause of diabetes – excessive loads of nervous system can become the starting mechanism for diabetes. Viral infections most often cause development of diabetes though the virus does not play a role — factors of development of diabetes develop together, and the viral infection only starts an illness. The age too is predisposition to diabetes — the person is more senior, the chance to ache is higher.
From all listed factors in each case only one (obesity, heredity) becomes the reason of development of diabetes.
For diabetes of both types the following symptoms are characteristic: the patient constantly feels thirst, drinks much, but because of a frequent urination loses liquid and is dehydrated. Constant feeling of hunger and simultaneous loss of weight. The person constantly feels low, dizziness, a sleep in feet and hands, spasms of gastrocnemius muscles. Problems with sight — feeling of fog before eyes begin. If the diabetic gets sick with ORZ or catches a cold, recovery happens much more slowly and more difficult. Well, and the most main symptom of diabetes is the high level of sugar in blood.
Diagnosis of diabetes
Having listened and having examined the patient (the person complains of thirst, loss of weight, a sleep of extremities) the doctor appoints two dough. One test will determine sugar level in blood, and the second — sugar level in urine. If diabetes is not present, in urine sugar is not defined as hold glucose. But if the level of sugar is increased, kidneys start passing glucose in urine.
Sugar level in blood is defined so: on a hungry stomach at the patient blood test undertakes. In norm the level of sugar should not exceed 120 mg of % (6,6 mmol/l). Then the patient is offered to drink 300 ml of boiled water in which 75 g of glucose are dissolved. After that sugar level in blood is defined two more times — in an hour after reception of glucose and in an hour. If sugar level on an empty stomach does not exceed 120 mg of %, and in two hours after sugar reception sugar level in blood is lower than 140 mg of % — the test negative means, and the patient has no diabetes. If on an empty stomach in the patient's blood more 120mg %, and in two hours the level of sugar exceeds 200 mg of %, so the person is sick with diabetes.
Treatment of diabetes
I will remind that at diabetes of 1 type of the patient suffers from insufficient secretion of insulin. The only way to support the level of insulin are insulin pricks. They are done hypodermically, and any patient is able to do them independently. Injections of insulin allow the patient to keep a habitual way of life, however for steadily satisfactory condition of health it is necessary to give injections of insulin all life.
Insulin happens two types: short action (Aktrapid, Humulin P, Insuman Rapid) and the average duration of action (Monotard, Protafan, Humulin of NPH, Insuman Bazal) only the doctor can define the Scheme of injections and volume of the entered insulin.
There are two main schemes of an insulinoterapiya: insulin of short action (for example, Aktrapid) before a lunch and insulin of the prolonged action (for example, Monotard) before a breakfast and before going to bed. The second scheme differs in that insulin of average duration of action is entered only before going to bed, and injections of insulin of short action are during the day given.
Usually in the morning of the patient enters to itself 40% of a daily dose of insulin of short action, 30 its % before a lunch and 30% before a dinner. The daily dose of insulin is equal 0,6-1 pieces/kg. 25% of a daily dose fall to the share of insulin of short action and 75% – to insulin of average duration of action.
As insulin is entered under skin, it slowly gets to blood: its action begins only in 15 minutes, and the maximum concentration in blood is reached in 40-60 minutes after a prick. The main dosage for treatment of diabetes is defined by the doctor, but after training, the patient can independently measure the level of sugar and change an insulin dose depending on indications of a glyukometr.
InfoAdvisor.net emphasizes that each patient with diabetes has to pass special training correctly to control the sugar in blood and to be able to count independently an insulin dose depending on sugar level. In this case the insulinoterapiya becomes easy, and the patient has an opportunity to lead fuller life: to diversify a diet and .
Diabetes 2 types is much more widespread. For its successful treatment of the patient sugar level in blood is obliged not only to control constantly, but also to adhere to a diet and to try to lose weight. The diet at diabetes 2 types consists in continuous consumption of low-calorie food, rich cellulose. Physical activities are obligatory: after all during charging the working muscles strenuously consume glucose, and it allows to support sugar level in norm.
If the diet and physical exercises do not give desirable effect, it is necessary to begin drug treatment which consists in reception of sakharosnizhayushchy preparations (Glyurenorm). However, physicians were convinced long ago that over time to the patient with diabetes 2 types all the same will be required to an insulin injection. It is connected with that over the years function of a pancreas weakens and insulin starts not to being enough.
For control of level of sugar the diabetic should get glyukometr — the device allowing to measure at any time sugar level in blood. It is the device, small by the size, on which there is a display and a small lancet. The finger is punctured and on the analysis the blood drop undertakes all. The device not only shows sugar level in blood, but also remembers it. It is very convenient for patients who have an opportunity to show results of a glyukometriya to the doctor. The cost of a glyukometr — from 1500 to 2500 rubles.
Complications of diabetes
If the patient does not care of constantly to support the normal level of sugar in blood, complications of diabetes gradually develop. The pricking and a sleep of extremities, a chill of feet and violation of sensitivity start disturbing patients. Further defeat of peripheral vessels that can end with gangrene and amputation of an extremity develops. Are surprised as well large vessels — develop heart attacks and strokes. If at the patient long time blood sugar is raised, the diabetic coma can develop. The essence of this phenomenon is that at a lack of insulin of a cage start feeling strong need for energy (not enough insulin — not enough glucose gets to blood, and glucose — it and is energy). To give to cages energy the organism begins to spend fat reserves. At a lack of insulin this process always happens too intensively, and a large number of not split fatty cages gets directly to blood. Part of fatty cages, passing through a liver, turns into so-called ketonovy bodies which are very toxic. It also causes development of a coma.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to cure diabetes, however, if constantly to control itself, it is possible to lead quite full-fledged life.