Now not rarity existence in the house. And after all quite recently it was not only a rarity, even it is possible to tell exotic, but also luxury. But everything flows, everything changes and with distribution of digital equipment the prices started falling, and availability, it is natural to raise, on the contrary. Here and you became the happy owner of the newcomer, or at the worst, not absolutely brand new, cameras. And now, after purchase, this is not about a choice of suitable type or brand any more. Now it will be a question already how to learn correctly to photograph. And functions can be much, but in the majority only one is used – descent of a lock. Automatic equipment, of course, a thing useful and the extremely convenient since it is not necessary to reflect on sizes of excerpts, diaphragms, distances, etc. But, nevertheless, the automatic mode cannot satisfy all requirements when shooting.
And now about everything one after another. Also we will begin with the short theory.
With formation of the image since the photo basis by Dagger so changed nothing – light also passes everything through the lens consisting of a set of lenses. But unlike film photoequipment the image is projected on a CCD matrix (the device with charging communication), and further is read out, processed and registers in the digital carrier. But it is not it (it, in general, does not interest us in this case). In a lens the diaphragm with the drive is established, and also there is a zoom lens mechanism. The endurance is carried out due to change of speed of reading from a CCD. Besides, there is multipoint (in the advanced models) or single-point (in simple) an exposure meter determining the size of illumination of objects and intended for installation of a so-called exposition, and also for adjustment of duration of an impulse of the built-in flash. There is also an auto focus sensor (except for "soap trays").
On the basis of indications of the exposure meter the exposition is set. Of course, in many "soap trays" everything is simple – only value of a diaphragm is set, and the endurance is established rigidly (as a rule, 1/60 sec.). But in devices all is more where it is more difficult. There the same exposition can be achieved at various combinations of endurance and a diaphragm. For example, 60/5,6 it is equivalent 50/6,3. You ask, and what mean these figures? The first is the endurance was specified. In this example 60 and 50 is a 1/60 sec. and 1/50 sec. And, the more value, the is shorter endurance (the lock works quicker, i.e. it turns out<50). Второе число – значение диафрагмы (относительное отверстие). Чем больше значение, тем сильней диафрагмирование объектива и тем меньше пройдет света через него. При наименьшем числе для каждого конкретного объектива он не диафрагмируется, т.е. используется его максимальная светосила.
60 A here is how it will affect result?
We pass to practice
If completely automatic mode (as a rule is used, the pictogram "camera"), system will automatically expose all parameters, including an exposition, true only in her opinion. Automatic equipment tries to choose rather long endurance (as a rule, 60), but also, without bending with it that jolting of the device or movement of objects in a shot did not affect. Jolting appears at excerpts more long 60. Thus the diaphragm is closed as much as possible to increase depth of sharpness is simplifies focusing process. But such approach is not always justified, more precisely, it is not always possible to receive wished in the photo. Then the choice of various modes of an exposition will come to the rescue. But besides, if you have "soap tray", most likely, it is necessary to be limited only to a choice of the "Sport" modes, "Portrait", "Landscape", etc. These modes too should not be neglected, but to demand smart result in this case senselessly.
With a choice of the specified modes everything is clear, InfoAdvisor.net suggests to learn to use more advanced. And them, it is possible to consider, only three: diaphragm priority, priority of endurance and completely manual installation. Also we will talk about them.
Priority of a diaphragm (A)
On the majority of devices it is designated by a letter "A" – Aperture (diaphragm). In this mode you manually set value of a diaphragm, and automatic equipment, considering illumination, establishes under it endurance, i.e. automatic equipment cannot already replace the value of a diaphragm chosen by you. And why it is necessary? It becomes when it is necessary to receive this or that depth of sharpness. And here it is necessary to give again a little theory.
Depth of sharpness shows that within a certain distance (for example, from 5 to 10 m) all details will be in sharpness, despite focusing of a lens on a concrete subject (for example, at distance of 7 m). And the masking, the more depth of sharpness is stronger. It is also necessary to note that this size depends and on focal length of a lens (from the provision of a zoom lens, a so-called zoom): the more focal length, the less depth of sharpness.
The sense of all this kotovasiya is as follows. If you need to divide plans (forward, average and distant) and to distinguish from them any object, InfoAdvisor.net advises to choose smaller value of a diaphragm.
At increase in this value the zone where everything will be in sharpness, will extend. And at the maximum value of a diaphragm there will be in sharpness practically everything, especially at small focal length.
It becomes to position a look of the one who will watch a photo on the necessary object. The person instinctively sees first of all only sharp details, indistinct remain unnoticed. It is very effective when there is a wish to separate the necessary object from a background. Generally this effect is used for shooting of portraits, since a basis of such photo – people.
By the way, the author is the supporter of this mode.
Priority of endurance (S)
It is designated by the letter "S" – Shutter (lock). Here the user rigidly sets lock speed, and automatic equipment selects a diaphragm.
Here it is reached various effects if a subject(s) in a shot move. If it is necessary "to snatch out" the moment that the image of a subject was static and accurate, InfoAdvisor.net recommends to choose endurance shorter.
In practice it is "250" and well (looking, what speed of the movement). But it happens and so that it is necessary to show in a picture moving subject, but not stiffened for ages. Then it is necessary to establish endurance more long, for example, "60" and is longer. Then moving details will be greased that points to dynamics of the movement.
It is necessary to notice that at a choice of endurance "30" and more long, jolting of the camera in hands already affects – hold it surely, but, not strongly squeezing, or use a support.
It is possible to make simple experiment. Establish in this mode long endurance (it is, as a rule, designated by "NR") on values we will tell "3" (1/3 sec.) or that 1 sec. more abruptly. Guide a lens at the included chandelier, a floor lamp or other illuminant. After descent of a lock drive, circular or other any movements, a chamber so that the chandelier was in sight of a lens. You will have a mysterious abstractionism.
And here when shooting with flash there is a nuance. InfoAdvisor.net recommends to remember that synchronization of many flashes requires endurance not well "90". If is shorter, normal illumination will be had by only very narrow site where snatched out "lock". But it not for all devices because the design of a lock and flash are various. Try on the.
Still it must be kept in mind that it is necessary to pick up correctly endurance since automatic equipment will pick up an exposition, but can not relieve of an excess in achievement of effect. For example, if too long endurance is chosen, it can turn out that everything will be greased and about any effect of the movement of the speech will not go any more.
Manual mode (M)
It is designated as "M" – Manual (manually).
By the way, such operating mode of cameras kept most long until electronics came to the rescue.
In this case you should establish both endurance, and a diaphragm manually. Automatic equipment will only help you to check correctness of level of an exposition on an exponometrichesky scale in the form of a ruler. In the middle zero mark (0) – a normal exposition, to the left minus (-) – a nedoderzhka, to the right plus (+) – overexposure. There are devices which exposition level, in addition to the specified ruler, display as is on the display, i.e., the display displays more darkly or is lighter.
Note – on mechanical chambers such it was impossible, and there was nothing to check an exposition, or "approximately", or on the external exposure meter.
And here this mode when, apparently, two previous are enough for all occasions why is necessary? And to create or effect of night in the afternoon, or, on the contrary, effect of day at night. Here look as it looks.
In the first case shooting happened at bright lighting.
In the second – practically in the dark.
It is reached in one case by a nedoderzhka, and in the friend – overexposure.
There is one more nuance. The mode "M" helps when automatic equipment could not offer the option of succession of events. For example, when too darkly or too brightly.
However, in such cases automatic equipment of serious devices is too not useless. Many devices have possibility of correction of an exposition, i.e. it is possible forcibly to force to remove with a nedoderzhka or overexposure in rather big ranges.
And how automatic equipment defines necessary value of an exposition?! Right! By means of the built-in exposure meter. There can be too various options. Generally the multisample photometry is suitable for the majority of cases. In this case the image is divided into compound areas (sectors), and the photometry is carried out for each area. Thus well balanced exposition without emergence of excessive contrast, i.e. exposition size here a certain compromise is defined.
Is also the central photometry i.e. when measurement happens in the subject which is in the center of a shot. By the way, development of chambers with the built-in exposure meters began with such way. And also also the local photometry meets. It practically the same, as central, but the area by which the exposition is determined, is very small (practically in a point) that allows to determine an exposition by a concrete subject.
Essence of two last ways consist in that it is more correct (without compromises) to define an exposition on necessary object, ignoring thus a background. It is required, for example, at portrait shooting. Here look as the multipoint photometry did not consider a difference between illumination of a background and the person.
The background turned out normal, and the person in overexposure. Of course, here fairly business was impaired a little by flash which in the non-automatic mode does not regulate a light stream. But, nevertheless, idea, I think, is clear.
Besides, there is still such reception when it is necessary to record an exposition on a certain point, and then to move a device lens. It is required generally when two last modes of photometry are chosen, but the necessary subject is not in the center of a shot.
There is also one more important detail in installation of an exposition – sensitivity of ISO. Allow! You will tell, but the camera not film! Yes, it so, but this measure of sensitivity was left for convenience of use since many already got used to this system.
Range of admissible values depends on the device here, but not from a film, but, as a rule, begins with ISO of 100 units and comes to the end with a maximum in 3200 pieces. Is also the AUTO mode. Then the device, depending on illumination, itself will expose sensitivity. But thus he tries to choose this value as little as possible. Because here, as well as on a film, the highest quality at the smallest sensitivity. Therefore be not fond without special need of increase of number of ISO. Will give two pictures as an example of InfoAdvisor.net – the first with ISO 160, second with ISO 3200. Both photos are made at identical lighting.
No, likely I deceived you a little. There is one more factor influencing an exposition – flash. Here we will review briefly only regular, i.e. onboard "frog". Though, sorry. On soap trays it not "frog" – she does not jump out. This flash has a number of the modes which however, depends on the mode of the device. As a rule, the full list of "services" flash will provide only if the camera is installed in the AUTO mode.
So, what modes happen:
- Automatic. Flash works (or does not work) automatically depending on need. Also duration of its impulse depending on the reached illumination is regulated thus (works only in the mode of the device - "CAR"). It is convenient, saves a device battery charge, but is not always suitable for use. An example – shooting against light;
- Compulsory flash (it is available in any mode). Works anyway, irrespective of illumination. Duration of an impulse is not regulated, i.e. flash uses the leading number completely. Is suitable for the majority of conditions of shooting, but spends more energy;
- Slow synchronization. Thus the speed of a lock will be established on more long value. Standard speed of a lock when using flash – 1/90 with, i.e. "90". It becomes to work a background because to it flash, as a rule, "does not finish";
For all above the specified modes there are modes with reduction of effect . In this case before the main flash a series of short flashes without operation of a lock follows. It becomes in order that pupils at the people who are in the dark were narrowed, and the eye bottom did not reflect red light. It makes sense to apply only when shooting people, in other cases it is waste of energy and time before operation of a lock.
- Without flash. It is the mode when flash is not used anyway. It becomes in order that shooting with flash was not made where it is forbidden and for receiving some effects where natural is required. The image becomes more natural. Also in the advanced devices "opens" some opportunities, for example, "range" of values in a choice of installation of balance white extends.
It is necessary to remember that use of regular flash does display of subjects of faces of people to photos flat. At least, it is necessary to try to photograph a little at an angle that there were shadows. But at big corners there will be excessively big contrast.
And even on flash. Do not make a widespread mistake: when you hold the camera – do not close a hand flash.
And what else useful functions provide modern devices?
This device allowing to change focal length of a lens without use of interchangeable lens. Thus it seems to you that this or that subject become closer or, on the contrary, is farther from you though you do not move.
And, actually, it is very convenient. When the lens with the fixed focal length is required to suit you closer, or to depart further that is not always possible and on it time is required, and the photo, as we know, art to seize the moment. On transfocal lenses of it it is not required to do, it is enough to turn a ring of a zoom lens or to press the corresponding button.
If to move towards "W" (Wide – wide), the corner of a field of vision of a lens will extend. Such lens call short-focus or wide-angle. Thus you have in addition ample opportunities on installation of depth of sharpness (since in this mode of a svetosil it is maximum) plus good division of plans. I.e. in this case the prospect extends. But there are distortions (aberration) – objects get a barrel-shaped form.
At a certain value, the lens is established on normal value of focal length. As a rule, it occurs when it "breaks". The matter is that the lens, at the movement from "W" to "T" at first leaves, and then again leaves. Here the point of "excess" is also normal focal length. Here the prospect is displayed without distortions (only constructive distortions of lenses).
If to establish value towards "T" (Tele – long), the point of view will be narrowed, and the lens will begin to be called dlinnofokusny (lenses with very great value are called telephoto lenses). Here the svetosila is minimum that leads to a poor choice of values of a diaphragm, therefore, sharpness depths. On svetosila telephoto lenses already extremely is not enough and already there are problems with focusing. It is connected with that a lot of light is lost in the lens. Also focusing is at a loss. But there is more to come – influence of jolting of the device increases. And besides the telephoto lens will possible to remove only from a support. The prospect in this case is narrowed, plans are badly divided (the image turns out flat), and subjects take saddle (biconcave) shape.
Thus only the normal lens gives the image without distortions of prospect. Of course, these distortions it is possible to achieve in some cases some effects but when they are not required, are "a payment for laziness".
And still a couple of words about a zoom lens. Besides an optical zoom of the lens provided by means, is also a digital zoom. It is reached in the electronic way, i.e. there is a scaling of the image. The first photo is made without digital zoom, the second – with a digital zoom.
Naturally, quality of the image thus strongly suffers (there are characteristic small squares – pixels). Though here too depends on the device much: the it is simpler, the scaling is more primitive, and quality is more mediocre thus.
And now we will talk about an auto focus.
When object(s) are not in the center of a shot, function of a multipoint auto focus is very convenient. Here, to similarly multipoint exposure meter, the system estimates a field on several points and establishes the most suitable size of distance from a lens to a shooting subject. This mode is suitable for the majority of cases and is very convenient. In the mode of the device "AUTO" this mode of focusing is set and to change is not subject.
Still the focusing choice on the center of a shot as cameras predecessors had it, and also the mode of an adjustable spot of an auto focus where it is possible to choose independently a point on which will be established is provided.
Two last modes allow to avoid certain difficulties, for example, when shooting through a fence. Multipoint focusing will react in this case to a fence.
In absolutely difficult situations, for example, when shooting through glass, manual focusing will come to the rescue. Here everything is clear – focusing is made by the photographer. For simplification of process the increase in a frame of focus is provided in some devices twice better to see details, therefore, to make more exact focusing. Thus it is necessary to consider that more time will be spent for all manipulations. I can advise in this case, is stronger blind to increase sharpness depth.
It is necessary to remember that the auto focus is powerless when shooting monophonic, mirror (it is not necessary to confuse to reflection of subjects in a mirror, then focusing will be successful), etc. surfaces. In this case to it it is simple there is nothing "to be hooked". Focusing in badly lit places is also problematic. However, at small distances the built-in illumination of an auto focus rescues – do not block it.
And how to use an auto focus? Here not everything is so simple. If it is simple to press the button of descent of a lock, shooting will happen, but focus will not be adjusted. The current value of focus will be more precisely used. So, in what here business. To make focus control, it is necessary to press only half the button of descent of a lock, to wait for control (if the automatic modes are chosen), about it and a badge on the screen, as a rule, , and then completely to press the button. Thus it is necessary to consider if the button is released, it is necessary to make focusing procedure anew. This procedure only for "serious" devices whereas it does not act on "soap trays".
Ah and! There is one more mode – macroshooting. It is necessary if you need to remove something closer, than the usual mode allows.
Balance of the white
That else it is possible to tell about innovations of digital photoequipment …
Unlike the film device, digital possesses an interesting option – balance white. The matter is that the film fixes the image as is actually. If to be more exact, in a film display of white color is put by production of a film. Whereas the digital device is compelled to arrange balance depending on specific conditions of shooting. It gives certain advantage before a film. You, obviously, remember how when shooting in the light of glow lamps zheltenky photos turned out. It could be avoided at the printing of photos correction of color, but the majority of photolaboratories of it, of course, did not do. The digital device "is arranged" under shooting conditions at once and further correction of color, as a rule, it is not required any more.
Stop! You can, did not understand about what there is a speech.
It is a little theory. Black and white everything was simple, installation of balance white was not required there. With the color image of business are worse. It is known that the color image consists of three primary colors – red (red), green (green) and blue (blue). For much likely the abbreviation – RGB is known, it and is these colors.
If these colors are in balance, white color turns out. If prevails any of flowers, white color not to reach. For example, by the light of the glow lamp color turns out yellow (straw). Thus balancing of the device considers the prevailing light white and on a photo display becomes correct – in this example without yellowness.
What balancing modes happen.
- Automatic balancing – the device independently defines right balance of the white at his "look". As a rule, it grabs "eyes" since electronics quite correctly defines balance;
- Balancing as illuminants (the glow lamp, luminescent lamps). If you remove indoors at the corresponding lamps, it is possible to establish balancing in these modes. But besides, the autobalance in most cases copes with such task and installation of these modes is not required;
- Balance white on a certain point (it is possible to consider the manual mode). It is applied to creation of effects. For example, if to expose balance on red, all red details will be white, and the general background will be very specific.
It should be noted that control of balance white in decent devices dynamic, i.e. with continuous definition of balance and does not depend on the provision of a cover of the device. That cannot be told about video cameras where this system is very primitive, and it is necessary to know, when and how to adjust balance.
There is one more "counter" of the digital device. Some devices allow to choose the frequency of your power supply network – either 50, or 60 Hz. And at what here the power supply network? Actually it would seem at anything, but communication after all is. And it is connected with shooting by the light of lamps, generally luminescent. The matter is that such lamps blink in a step with a frequency of a network is can cause blinking. Here for this purpose this option is also necessary. The device, considering frequency, tries to make so that not to fall into synchronism with a blinking. For Russia this option should be established 50 Hz on value.
There is, of course, still a set various useful and not really functions and options, but it will not be possible to consider them in one article. We considered the main which are most necessary and are most often used when shooting. It will be simple to master them - it is necessary to practise and read only a little the instruction to the camera.
And when you already learn to receive pictures qualitative, will come it is time to reflect on composition in the photo. In other words, everything that "will stand" in a shot has to represent a uniform complete picture. It will be in this regard useful to examine the following material: "".