Investment of capital into the deposit account is not only by rescue of savings from inflation any more. Thanks to deposit deposits, in the conditions of stability of economy it is possible even to increase the savings.
The deposit contribution is the least profitable financial instrument, but in too time and the least risky. If to keep deposits in different currencies and more or less stable banks (still nobody cancelled the rule of baskets and eggs), risk to lose the savings it is practically reduced to zero.
So, if you decided to put money for the deposit, you need to know some secrets of this "kitchen" as much as possible to increase "blood". First and most important question: "What type of the deposit to choose?". In the Russian banking practice two types of deposits as charge of percent most often meet:
With charge of percent at the end of term.
With capitalization of percent.
The essence of the first deposit or as it still call the classical deposit, is that the bank for the initial sum of an investment or for the sum which was formed on the date of the termination of term of the deposit (for deposits with possibility of a dovlozheniye) disposable totals the percent stipulated in the contract. That is, the bank in the last day contracts will add percent for the sum which is on the account.
What is the deposit with capitalization?
The deposit with capitalization of percent represents a contribution on which the bank charges the percent specified in the contract in certain periods (days, month, quarter). Simple words: the bank monthly charges a monthly rate for the rest on the account, and the next month - for the rest, taking into account the previous charge.
Difference in profitability of two types of deposits
If with the classical deposit more and more or less clearly, to capitalization it is worth talking about the deposit in more detail. Many experts consider this deposit more favorable, than classical. We with ease can check it.
The formula is applied to calculation of profitability of the deposit:
P – initial sum of a contribution;
Z – the paid percent for the specified period;
I – contractual annual interest rate;
J – number of calendar days in the period for which capitalization is carried out;
K – calendar days in a year.
Modern technologies will help to cope with this task quickly enough. For calculation of profitability of the deposit it is possible to use the MS Office Excel applications, as the most evident and simple in use. So, we will take for example, 300 thousand rubles, we will divide them equally and we will put two deposits in conditional bank under 15% per annum, for a period of one year. For simplicity of calculations we will accept that the beginning of the deposit will be on January 1, and the termination, respectively, on December 31. With capitalization charge of percent will be monthly made for a contribution, and for both deposits possibility of dovlozheniye will not be provided.
Let's calculate profitability of the deposit with capitalization. For this purpose, at first we will calculate a monthly interest rate. For January it pays off as 31/365*15%. That is, the annual rate shares on number of calendar days in a year and is multiplied by number of days in reporting month. As a result we receive 1,27%. We count the sum of percent for reporting month further, having increased the sum by the end of the period, by a monthly interest rate. Having made calculation, we receive 1910,96 rubles. We put the sum for the end of the period and the added percent, we receive 151910,96 rubles for which percent next month will be charged. Having calculated in this way capitalization in the subsequent periods (see table 1), at the end of deposit term we will receive 174113,05 rubles or 24113,05 rubles of profit.
Now we will calculate profitability of the classical deposit. For this purpose it is necessary to increase simply an annual rate by the sum for the end of the period. That is 150000*15% also we will receive 22500 rubles of profit (see table 1).
As we see, under equal conditions, the deposit with capitalization allows to receive big profitability, than a classical contribution.
It should be noted that banks, as a rule, try to underestimate an interest rate for deposits with capitalization in comparison with classical deposits. Therefore it is necessary to consider a difference in interest rates at making decision on deposit type.
Opening of a contribution with capitalization
Opening of a contribution with capitalization of percent essentially does not differ from opening of the classical deposit. At registration of the contract for opening of this contribution it is necessary to adhere to several important principles. First, it is necessary to read the contract attentively. In it, besides general provisions, has to be the interest rate and the period for which the deposit capitalization is made is accurately specified. If in the contract the formulation of these parameters is vague that meets quite seldom in modern banking practice, it is better to refrain from the conclusion of the similar contract.
For decision-making of rather future contribution it is not necessary to hesitate to ask the bank employee to read you profitability of various types of deposits under the terms of this bank. It is desirable that calculations of profitability of the deposit were recorded in the contract on a contribution, in that case you will secure yourself against possible misunderstanding of conditions of bank, after all there is a set of the interesting moments which bank employees prefer to hold back. Secondly, when determining financial establishment for placement of a contribution, it is necessary to consider its financial stability. Attractive interest rates, both on classical deposits, and on deposits can play a dirty trick when the bank does not have means for its payment with capitalization. Therefore it is better to sign the contract on a contribution with banks from the first ten.
Features of the taxation
The taxation of the income from deposits with capitalization is carried out on the same bases, as the income from classical deposits. However here it is necessary to know some nuances. For example, if at extension of a contribution its interest rate for 5% exceeds discount rate of the Russian Central Bank, from profit on such deposit it is necessary to give to the state 35%.