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Composition bases in the photo

"Give I you I will click!". Of course, this phrase from the known animated film slightly frightens. Though similarities are very ominous. And the lock to you is, and in English this same word: "shot" - "shot" and "shot" - "picture". Actually there is no crime – it will be a question of photographing, and it is concrete about house photographing.
"Give I you I will click!". Of course, this phrase from the known animated film slightly frightens. Though similarities are very ominous. And the lock to you is, and in English this same word: "shot" - "shot" and "shot" - "picture". Actually there is no crime – it will be a question of photographing, and it is concrete, about house photographing.
Many of you have at home at least one camera and you it occasionally, or perhaps and is not present, use. Let's consider how to make shooting process, to be exact, result from it, more attractive.
In the course of shooting a lot of things depend on that, settings of the camera are how truly chosen. If here all OK, the picture leaves technically qualitative, about this told in the previous article "How to Learn It Is Correctly to Photograph". But it does not exempt you from all the rest because the technical part of a question is only a small part of a successful photo. And what then matters? Correctly! Shooting subject. And here already big field for the imagination and various receptions. Generally it also defines art quality of a picture. I.e. the photo can be technically faultless, but artly senseless. For example, picture of a usual water pipe.
And now let's understand of what there is a photocomposition. Likely one of the key moments is the moment. Not for nothing tell – the photo art of the moment.

Shooting moment

Here it is impossible to foresee for 100% when there comes this moment. But after all I can provide some recommendations for receiving successful composition:
  • consider dynamics of the occurring events and depending on it make shooting. Than the scene is more dynamic, especially prompt you have to be;
  • try to minimize technical manipulations with your device. As a rule, the necessary moment happens at this particular time;
  • if you see, that occurs is and there is that long-awaited moment, it is necessary not to miss it. And, if you tarried with focusing, for example, do not waste time – remove as is.
Therefore it is necessary to try to predict succession of events, then you will be already fully equipped, i.e. ready to shooting of the necessary episode and will be where it is required.
Proceeding from it, the following item smoothly follows.

Point of shooting and foreshortening

In photo composition a lot of things depend and on a shooting point i.e. as the photographer concerning a shooting subject is located. Here, of course, depends on your taste therefore try to shoot from different points – from various distances and under various corners, including not only on the right or at the left, but also from below or from above much.
It is not necessary to be fond of shooting of people directly, then their faces will turn out flat and uninteresting.
The corner under which shooting is made, and is called as a foreshortening.
Не следует увлекаться съемкой людей прямо, тогда их лица получатся плоскими и неинтересными
Time the speech came about people, and we will talk about them.
And whom these people have to the camera? Shooting subject. Here also I will tell about them.

Shooting subject

Depending on that or who is in a shot, photos differ on a genre. If people, it at you leaves, the portrait turned out. A set of tomatoes from giving – a still life. A fairy forest – a landscape, etc.
But here, at the seeming simplicity, some mistakes meet. For example, you photograph the relatives outdoors, we will tell against the beautiful seashore. To show beauty of this sea you departed far away and pressed a button. The photo will turn out excellent, but, alas, it does not apply for a portrait rank. Why? People on such photo turn out small, their persons are almost indiscernible, i.e. people in this case as part of a beautiful landscape. Also leaves that it and a portrait not a portrait, and a landscape useless since people actually spoil it because do not make logical actions. In other words, the uniform picture, composition did not leave.
Единой картины, композиции не вышло
And here so looks when is larger.
А вот так выглядит, когда крупнее
Now about action in a shot. The picture is differently if you were going to photograph, for example, a football match. In this case, despite that persons still is practically not visible, in a shot there is an action, in this case – game in soccer. Also it is already quite logical and finished composition.
В этом случае, не смотря на то, что лиц по-прежнему практически не видно, в кадре появляется действие, в данном случае – игра в футбол
Of course, the most widespread and fascinating shooting is just a portrait since everything who has the camera, conduct a house photo album. And I more than am sure that in these albums more than 90% of a photo are portraits. But besides the prevalence it is one more of the most difficult genres of shooting since it is necessary to make so that the person remained a person, but did not turn into a statue on a photo.
In most cases at house shooting the photographer can group itself a shot, i.e. place people voluntarily. It should not be neglected. No, it is not obligatory to build all on growth, if you, of course, not in army at all. Simply to create successful composition, and for this recommends to execute a number of the following actions. Having estimated number of people, and having commensurated with the room sizes, place them so that whenever possible it was not close (for example, on a room diagonal), otherwise they, feeling not comfortably, will be held down. If some ranks turn out, needless to say, back rows have to be above lobbies.
Then pay attention to clothes. What for? That whenever possible people in clothes of identical color did not stand nearby, differently Siamese twins will turn out.
Examine an overall picture in a place with a background. I do not think that someone will like cervine horns which quietly hung on a wall, but appeared in exactly over the head. Also look, whether the shadow from subjects falls on whom. Especially it touches faces.
And, by itself, certainly, remove as it is possible closer. It is also necessary to notice that for shooting of portraits it is more favorable to use excerpts around "60". It will make faces more live.
But it was talked of group portraits. With individual there are some differences. Here, also as well as in the first case, the person it is necessary to have as it is possible closer to the device and as it is possible further from a background. To use the maximum svetosila of a lens, i.e. to establish as smaller value of a diaphragm is possible. Then it has to turn out so that the person will be (sharp) in focus, and the background – is not present (indistinct).
Используя максимальную светосилу объектива, т.е. установить как можно меньшее значение диафрагмы, получим так, что человек будет в фокусе (резким), а фон – нет (расплывчатым)
This reception allows to position a look on the person. Plus to it at such configuration of composition of people, i.e. the main character of a portrait, occupies the greatest space of a shot that also focuses attention. It, if I may say so, picture efficiency. Only be vigilant, check work of an auto focus (if it is available in your device). At a mistake there can be everything, on the contrary, there will be in focus a background, and the person is indistinct. This will be called as marriage.
It is also necessary to consider a number of the moments. For example, it is necessary to avoid the straight lines crossing a shot from beginning to end irrespective of the fact how this line crosses. It divides one photo into two (and more). Avoid also cuttings of parts of a body. Classically divide photos into a photo to the utmost when it is visible the person entirely; on a belt and only the top part of a trunk – up to shoulders. It is necessary to leave a certain space that it did not seem over the head of the person that he rests against a ceiling. Equally as it is not necessary "to rest" his face against the region of a shot, then there is no prospect.
Look as light on people falls. And the result of shooting will depend on it in many respects. Therefore we will consider in more detail this question.

Light in your window

As you likely know, the photo is translated into Russian, as svetopis. From this it is simple to guess that a basis is light. So, and what light is? And it different. Light sources share on natural and artificial.
It has to be clear that a natural light source is the Sun, and this is the most faithful assistant when shooting since the best results can achieve only at a sunlight. Of course, business becomes complicated a little if our star was behind clouds that leads to flat light. Stop! And how light can be flat? This conditional concept. The matter is that clouds play a role of the opaque light filter. They not only weaken intensity of light, but also disseminate it, doing monotonous. Such lighting leads to that shadows due to the lack of light orientation disappear. Lack of shadows does display of subjects to a photo flat and gloomy. Here, as it looks:
Отсутствие теней делает отображение предметов на фото плоскими и угрюмыми
And here a photo at a sunlight:
фото при солнечном свете
Despite it, intensity of light even through clouds is very impressive.
Possibilities of artificial lighting where are more modest. At least, it will not be possible to light a landscape with standard illuminants.
Various lamps are applied to the lighting purposes in the photo: lamps flashes; ordinary glow lamps; halogen lamps, etc. And it becomes, besides, for receiving a treatment of light and shade. Yes, the treatment of light and shade is also necessary to us. For obtaining the relief (volume) image, there is not enough presence of the lighter, it it is necessary also it is correct to place. Illumination is carried out not directly, and at an angle. Then on the one hand the lit side, and on other party because of roughnesses of a body – a shadow turns out. It also emphasizes volume. Only the main thing not to be overzealous because excessive brightness will result in so excessive contrast. And now how to highlight.
При портретной съемке используют несколько осветителей
At portrait shooting use some lighters. So-called main light is directed on a face of the person at the left (in drawing I1 source) at an angle by about 45 °. As it was already told, such light will create the volume image, but it it appears a little. It is necessary to use, at least, two more lamps.
The source of I2 is had on the right at an angle 30 … 40 °. And luminous intensity has to be less, than at I1 source. After all it is the filling light that there was no excessive contrast.
It is possible to achieve smaller brightness in various ways: installation of less powerful lamp; installation of the lens in the lighter; increase in distance from I2 source to object.
And, at last, the source of I3 is engaged in illumination of a background. And why to us background? And in order that the background did not turn out too dark, and was not created heavy feelings of a picture. But it is not necessary to go to far in illumination of a background too, then the person will turn out dark.
There is one more advantage of background illumination. The occipital part is highlighted, and the general display of the person in a picture turns out more volume and well separated from a background. Beautifully hair start shining.
Of course, in daily shooting of it you should not do, and if you possess a film chamber, it to do and it is not recommended because of obtaining yellow photos. But, considering told, it is possible to try to dispose of more correctly available light sources.
There is one more nuance, and it has technical character.
Color temperature is a parameter, contrary to the name, has no relation neither to heat, nor to cold, it characterizes color. I.e. any color has a certain color temperature. That it was more clear, I will give an example. Let's take two clean sheets of different paper. If to consider them separately, both leaves seem white. But it is worth combining them as you will see a difference – one leaf will appear more white.
Пример разницы цветовой температуры
It is also characterized by color temperature. This temperature is taken in degrees Kelvin and increases as approaching the violet. For example, at straw-colored color value of this temperature around 2700 °k.
Nearly forgot, one more moment. Try to avoid illumination of persons from below – the photo from the They Are Searched by Militia series will turn out.
And now we pass to people.

Informal conversation

Unlike shooting of landscapes, shooting of people has specific feature – they should be prepared for shooting. The matter is that the person, getting to a "emergency" situation it is enslaved, a body, and the most important person, become held down that negatively influences result of shooting.
Therefore when shooting portraits of advises:
  • not to remove "straight off". Let's at first people get used to you and the camera;
  • not to draw to itself special attention;
  • not to say the "crown" phrase – "Attention!". It instantly holds down people;
  • if you use light (lighters, chandeliers, etc.), include it in advance that people got used and did not squint;
  • just before shooting try to make so that people relaxed, for example, tell them a joke or etc.;
  • do not drag out process, including setup of the equipment. Control, besides process lengthening also attracts unnecessary attention. People will be tired, and the result will be not so hot.
The situation is with children more difficult. It is good if it is your offspring, then he should not get used to you. Otherwise it is necessary to wait for the moment when the child gives you "the" status. And until you for it "stranger", it is possible not to wait for shibky success. Besides, anyway the child has to get used to the equipment, and on it a lot of time can leave, happens that not one day.
In general, and the majority above the specified rules is suitable for shooting of children, only here it will be required to give you much more attention and forces to the child. It is necessary to talk more to it in positive and cheerful mood.
In certain cases it is necessary to depart from the specified rule and, on the contrary, to adjust the equipment more long and is as much as possible indicative, with game elements.
Small children are removed, as a rule, "as is", i.e. in a situation, natural to them. Any usazhivaniye on a stool! In general, the child at photography has to be occupied with the business, do not force it, something to do according to your instruction. It will immediately cause discontent the child, and, so you deprive naturalness composition, the same constraint will be shown. It is best of all to interest the child in any game, then he will be keen on it, so is liberated.
And the last. That or whom you would not photograph, approach process with the imagination. It is necessary to remember that the photo is first of all art, but not equipment.
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