The birth of the child is absolutely natural physiological process. Practically all women pass through it. Correctly to behave at the time of delivery, it is necessary to know, this process is how exactly made. We will tell readers of InfoAdvisor.net about the entire periods of childbirth – from fights before appearance of the newborn. That future mummies could know that them expects during this period of time.
In 9 months after conception the fruit reaches a final stage of development which allows it to survive out of a maternal bosom. Authentically it is not studied what exactly awakens process of a child-bearing, but is absolutely clear that it is connected with completion of development of a fruit. Preparation for childbirth begins . The hormones which are in mother's blood do muscles and a linking of the genital channel soft, providing possibility of their stretching at the time of delivery. Adrenal glands of the kid develop special hormones, corticosteroids. They prepare children's lungs for independent breath, stimulating production with an organism of special substance (surfactant) which prevents adhesion of tiny alveoluses. At premature birth when this substance is not created, the child cannot breathe own lungs still long time after the delivery. Corticosteroids also cause a producing a large number of a karbogidrat of a glycogen (animal starch) collecting in various parts of a body. Its some part is in a cardiac muscle, supporting heartbeat at insufficient intake of oxygen in blood at the time of delivery.
Readiness for childbirth
The provision of a fruit in a uterus is an indicator of its readiness for childbirth. Throughout early stages of development the fruit freely rotates in a uterus, last weeks its movements are limited because of the termination of growth of a uterus. At this stage the head is directed towards a uterus neck – the kid is ready to be born.
Then, for the last month, the head of the child is hung in a basin cavity. Such situation is called head prelying of a fruit. Now the growing child starts stretching uterus walls. It causes irritation of her muscles, at the same time omission of a fruit in a cavity of a basin stimulates development with a hypophysis of mother of a hormone of oxytocin under the influence of which muscles of a uterus start being reduced – there come so-called fights of Bekstona-Hicks. They have periodic character and, despite rather expressed force, painless. Unlike true labor pains, Bekstona-Hicks's fights quickly enough stop.
First period of childbirth
During the first period the lion's share of efforts is the share of opening of a neck of a uterus. It is the most long. Also some hours can last, waters (amniotic liquid in which there was a newborn of all 40 weeks) will not depart yet. The state is checked by the doctor every four hours. The neck of a uterus has to open on 10 cm or 5 obstetric fingers.
The child lies with the head pressed to own thorax and gradually falls more deeply to a basin cavity.
Continuous fights which become more and more long, intensive and frequent can be a sign of the begun childbirth. Uterus body stretching along with oxytocins, perhaps, plays the leading role in initiation of childbirth. Her muscles become sensitive to this hormone, and at increase of quantity of oxytocin in blood to critical level fights begin. The woman at this moment feels painful feelings in the bottom of a stomach and the aching a back pain. The stomach becomes firm as a stone, it means that muscles were reduced and push out a fruit. If the woman has this hormone is badly and a little developed, doctors use synthetic oxytocin (that is give intramuscular injections with the preparation "oxytocin").
During the second period there is directly childbirth – exile of a fruit. On average it lasts about an hour, seldom more than two. After full opening of a neck of a uterus regular waves of strong contractions start going along a uterus from its top part. At this moment the woman has to make an effort. Three attempts are the share of one fight. In order that it is correct to make everything, the woman needs to listen to the doctor and the midwife, they will prompt as it is correct to breathe and when to start making an effort. During the first period of childbirth the child lies on one side. As soon as the head starts passing through a basin, it is developed in such a way that his face is directed towards a maternal back.
This movement gives the chance easily to pass between basin kostm. With each new fight the child forces the way further and further on the patrimonial channel, the threshold of a vagina stretches and the head comes to light. At this moment there is a turn of a coat hanger, that is the child again turns on one side.
At this moment the woman needs to gain strength and it is good to be extinguished that the child left completely, coat hanger and a body are born quickly, as they much less head.
In the last period of childbirth the afterbirth (a placenta by means of which all 40 weeks arrived nutrients from mother to the child) separates. The placenta starts exfoliating from uterus walls right after the child's radeniye as he does not need intake of oxygen from mother any more. Usually the afterbirth is expelled in 20 minutes after the delivery. Sometimes the midwife helps to separate to an afterbirth, pressing on a stomach during the woman's attempt.
Even normal childbirth is a disease process. The breathing exercises learned during pregnancy can weaken pain. But more effective method is considered – introduction in the first period of childbirth of pethidine. Medicine starts working approximately in half an hour. If necessary anesthetic is entered epiduralno (into covers of a spinal cord, in that place where sensitive nerves of a uterus approach them). The negative moment in it anesthesia is that is blocked not only pain, but also other sensitive signals. Therefore natural activity in childbirth during the second period can decrease.
ComplicationsIncrease of pressure.
Thus women have hypostases. In the analysis of urine it is visible that protein is increased. amplifies. All this can lead to a preeklampsichesky toksemiya (PET). PET leads to decrease in receipt to the child of nutrients.Insufficiently wide vagina.
Thus it is difficult for head of the child to come to light. The epiziotomiya is in that case carried out (a crotch cut sideways). After the delivery it is sewn up. After such mini-operation the woman cannot sit down directly, it is necessary to sit down accurately on that side which remained whole, seams will not begin to live yet.Shortage of oxygen.
With each reduction of a uterus supply of the child with oxygen stops. After each attempt the doctor has to listen to heartbeat of the kid through mother's stomach. There is a special tube for this purpose. But now many maternity hospitals are equipped with the special electronic equipment that much more facilitates work of doctors and obstetricians. At shortage of oxygen such measures as inhalation by oxygen of mother and turn on the left side are undertaken. Shortage of oxygen can be the cause of displacement by an umbilical cord round a fruit neck. Such children, most often, are quickly restored.Pelvic prelying.
When the child is born a head, it stretches a vagina so that it is easy for coat hanger and trunk to pass. And when the first legs or a basin are born (and they much less head), the head can pass with difficulties.
In extreme situations when the condition of mother or child is under the threat, doctors carry out the operation known as . Under the general or the abdominal cavity, then a uterus for extraction of the child is opened. After operation which lasts about 45 minutes, everything is sewn up. If no complications are present, recovery comes till 20 days. Cesarean section is sometimes planned by the doctor in advance (a narrow basin, a large fruit, repeated Caesarian, cross prelying).
Cutting of an umbilical cord
Most often the umbilical cord is tied up and cut after the beginning of independent breath. Sometimes doctors draw it after the termination of a pulsation.
At birth the child is covered with whitish slime (it is greasing thanks to which it was easy for it to pass all stages of childbirth as it helped to slide on patrimonial ways). Skin seems sulfur, sometimes cyanotic. Some minutes when it is rubbed off diapers, later the newborn becomes pink color. Sometimes there is a need to help to make the first breath to the child. For this purpose doctors use different means. But generally need for it is not present. Cold air (in comparison with "a warm and cozy uterus") and a lack of oxygen is stimulated to make the first breath independently. Right after the birth (provided that everything is normal) the child is spread to mother on a stomach and put to a breast. The children's sosaniye stimulates development of oxytocin at mother. It promotes reduction of a uterus, for office of an afterbirth. For 2-3 days at mother colostrum will be emitted. It not such fat as milk, but it at this stage is enough for the newborn. In the beginning the weight of the child will be lost. And for the 10th days the newborn gains weight, such which was at the birth.