Chicken pox – an acute infectious disease of the virus nature. Chicken pox belongs to group of antroponoz, i.e. it only the person is ill and to catch chicken pox from animals and birds it is impossible by definition.
In most cases children aged from 5 till 9-10 years are ill. Adults are ill seldom, but in case of infection the disease at them proceeds especially hard.
The causative agent of chicken pox (Varicella) is the virus Varicella-zoster virus relating to DNA-containing family of the viruses Herpetoviridae. Perhaps so detailed description of family of viruses will also not be interesting to the ordinary reader, but Herpes zoster – the herpes virus causing also shingles also belongs to Herpetoviridae family. Moreover – many experts consider that the virus of chicken pox and a virus of herpes is the same virus which at the first hit in an organism causes chicken pox and a long time remains in cells of a spinal cord, and at decrease in immunity is shown in the form of simple herpes or shingles. The person who does not have immunity to a virus of chicken pox can get sick with chicken pox at contact with sick shingles.
As it is possible to catch chicken pox
It is possible to catch a virus of chicken pox from the person to the person in the airborne way. Contageousness (transmissibility) of this virus reaches 100%, i.e. practically all who contact to the patient and have no specific immunity, get sick with chicken pox. It is possible to catch not only at close contact with the patient, but also at quite considerable distance (InfoAdvisor.net emphasizes that in medical practice infection cases from the patient who is on other floor of the building are described). Immunity after the postponed chicken pox lifelong, but in case of a heavy immunodeficiency possibly and repeated infection. Possibly and pre-natal infection with a virus of chicken pox in the last some days of pregnancy. At pre-natal infection on early terms of pregnancy development of heavy malformations is possible.
Symptoms and course of a disease
The incubatory period, i.e. the period from the moment of infection with a virus and before emergence of the first symptoms of diseases, makes from 11 to 21 days, but on average it lasts 2 weeks. Many know about high risk of a disease of chicken pox and try not to contact to the patient. However InfoAdvisor.net pays your attention that there can be an infection source also a patient two days prior to emergence in it of strong indications of a disease, during this period and there is a majority of infections. Sick chicken pox remains infectious until drying of crusts.
At the very beginning of a disease of any special symptoms of a disease of chicken pox is not present. Within about two days the child has a weakness, slackness, lack of appetite, temperature if rises, is insignificant. In certain cases there are no these symptoms also and emergence of rash seems sudden and causeless. Rash can develop on any site of a body, the truth on the head and a face it appears a bit later. Emergence of new elements of rash has tolchkoobrazny with an interval of two three days. Approximately in a third of cases rash develops and on mucous membranes of cheeks, a hard palate, gums and language, and at girls – on mucous genitals.
Character of vysypny elements at chicken pox is familiar to most of mothers and at their emergence seldom there are doubts in character of a disease, especially more in case of a similar disease in kindergarten or school. In certain cases similar rash can arise at , contact dermatitis, an allergy to medicines therefore consultation of the doctor will be necessary anyway. In the beginning there are roundish specks of the different size (makula), usually to 10 mm in the diameter, then they rise over skin level in the form of small knots (papule), and are filled with transparent liquid (vezikula) which grows turbid and arises pupkoobrazny retraction in the center of a bubble (pustul) subsequently later. In a day or two vezikula dry up and become covered by crusts which disappear without any traces, but there can sometimes be small hems disappearing in some years. Distinctive feature of vysypny elements at chicken pox is their false polymorphism (variety), i.e. at the same time on skin it is possible to see different vysypny elements though actually are the same elements of rash, but during the different period of maturing.
Between emergence of the first and last elements of rash usually passes 7-8 days, and the interval between emergence of the first elements of rash and falling off of crusts makes two-three weeks. In certain cases chicken pox can proceed in the erased form without emergence of vysypny elements and it is possible to judge the postponed disease only on the basis of existence of the acquired immunity and absence of a disease even at close contact with the patient.
Methods of diagnosis of chicken pox
Diagnosis of chicken pox usually does not cause difficulties in the pediatrician, especially in the presence in the anamnesis of contact with the patient with chicken pox. Character of rash and a variety of vysypny elements (false polymorphism), and also time of their emergence allows to make the diagnosis of chicken pox without any additional methods of inspection.
However in certain cases at the atypical course of a disease there is a need for carrying out the differential diagnosis with simple herpes and herpangina, a streptodermiya, a vezikulezny rickettsial disease, stings and other insects. The most indicative is allocation of a virus in culture of fabrics at electronic microscopy. When using serologichesky methods of diagnostics – is indicative more than quadruple increase of a caption of antibodies in reaction of binding of a complement. Also changes in composition of peripheral blood, characteristic for a viral infection can be useful to diagnosis of chicken pox (taken from a vein, a finger).
Treatment of chicken pox
At children's age chicken pox is had rather easily and does not cause any complications, but 5-7% of patients can have suppurations of vysypny elements on skin (up to abscesses and gangrene), pneumonia, sepsis. A virus of chicken pox heart, , a liver can sometimes be surprised.
Any specific treatment at chicken pox does not exist and it consists in treatment with application of symptomatic therapy at home. Food during an illness has to be a frequent and small amount of food with the reduced quantity of "heavy" meat products and the raised content of vitamins. At a hyperthermia febrifugal preparations are applied (InfoAdvisor.net highlights that use of acetilsalicylic acid during this period is excluded, in order to avoid development of a syndrome of Ray – toxic damage of a liver and a brain). Elements of rash are processed by 1% diamond greens (with appearance of the child, from feet to the head smeared in brilliant green, at many and chicken pox is associated) or 5-10% solution of permanganate of potassium (potassium permanganate). For prevention of infection of vysypny elements carefully follow rules of personal hygiene. It is desirable to cut nails very shortly that the child not especially actively combed the itching bubbles. At very strong itch skin can be rubbed off the vinegar divorced in half with boiled water and to powder with talc.
In case of complications at chicken pox apply anti-herpetic antiviral preparations (acyclovir), vidarbin, specific anti-herpetic immunoglobulin, leykotsitarny human interferon, antibiotics at accession of a secondary infection, interferon preparations, however such treatment is carried out only in the conditions of a hospital.
Prevention of chicken pox
Specific methods of prevention in Russia and in Europe are not used though in some countries the varitsello-zoster a vaccine in the first three days after contact with the patient is applied. For active immunoprevention of herpes and chicken pox abroad use also specific attenuirovanny vaccine. Use of specific immunoglobulins for prevention of chicken pox of herpes expediently only at pregnant women and children with heavy dekompensirovanny forms of diseases and not having natural immunity.
When it is possible to go to kindergarten?
The child who got sick with chicken pox is isolated from other children before disappearance of crusts or till fifth day since emergence of the last vysypny elements. Other children under 7 years who do not have immunity to chicken pox and contacting to the sick child are sent on quarantine, i.e. the ban on visit of preschool institutions on three weeks, since day of contact is imposed.