One of the common causes leading to considerable deterioration or even to full loss of sight is the cataract. Therefore more than 370000 operations are performed by ophthalmologists on replacement of a crystalline lens in Russia every year. In view of relevance of the question InfoAdvisor.net in this article will tell about the emergence reasons, stages of course and methods of treatment of this disease.
Reasons and symptoms of a cataract
The name was given to this eye disease still in the ancient time by Greeks and is translated as "falls". Possibly, Greeks tried to show that suffering sees world around and all subjects is indistinct, as if through plentiful water flow and splashes. Some people mistakenly think that at a cataract on an eye there is a plenochka preventing to see normally. Actually pathological processes come in a crystalline lens – it gradually from the transparent lens responsible for focusing of light and creation of the accurate image, turns into opaque yellowish-brown structure. There is it because of swelling, turbidity and disintegration of lenticular fibers. Quite so they react to violations of food in the eye environment and fabrics. The black area of a pupil at cataract gets a grayish, and then and whitish shade. Emergence and the course of a cataract are promoted by age violations, injuries of an organ of vision, eye pathologies (high short-sightedness, , changes in a retina), radiation and ultra-violet exposure, bad ecology, toxic poisonings (mercury, naphthalene), smoking, heredity, violations of food and exchange processes, endocrine frustration, for example, .
When progressing pathological processes in a crystalline lens of reddening and pains is not present, but visual acuity considerably decreases. It seems to the person as if he looks through the misted-over glass or the condensed fog. Sometimes before eyes hyphens, stripes, strokes, spots flash, the photophobia is possible, when reading a letter look is indistinct and merge, it is difficult to sew, knit. The person can lose ability to see completely. The diagnosis is made by the ophthalmologist, previously having examined the patient on several special devices.
Types and forms of a disease
The cataract is subdivided on acquired (arisen with age) and congenital (connected with genetic disorders or an illness of the woman during incubation of a fruit). Acquired it is classified on senile (connected with age changes), traumatic (caused by chemical, mechanical damages), secondary (it is provoked by some diseases of eyes), beam (appears at long influence of high doses of radiation more often), diabetic and other forms of cataracts.
Senile cataract – stages and measures for its prevention
It is the most widespread form of a cataract affecting one or two eyes of the person aged after 50 years. Allocate four stages of a disease – initial (start of the mechanism of turbidity of fibers of a crystalline lens), unripe (there are concrete violations of visual acuity), mature (full turbidity and vision only of weak contours of subjects through dense fog) and overripe. At an overripe cataract opportunity to see is lost, the crystalline lens can inflate, it brings in many cases to deterioration of outflow of watery moisture and development of glaucoma.
At one patients the disease quickly progresses, causing loss of sight in a year or two. And here others can live with a cataract decades, thus only insignificant decrease in visual functions is noted.
Some councils which will help to slow down turbidity in a crystalline lens:
- Fully eat, eyes need vitamins and minerals. Beta carotene is especially useful. He contains in yellow, orange and red fruit and vegetables – carrots, tangerines, pumpkin, paprika. Do not forget about butter, cod liver and lettuce leaves.
- Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) too actively struggles with an illness. Remember that there is a lot of askorbinka in currant, a kiwi, cabbage, oranges, lemons, grapefruits. Eat on a grapefruit half in an hour or two after a breakfast and a lunch.
- Our eyes need the regulator of exchange processes – Riboflavinum (B2 vitamin). With it walnuts, a liver are rich bilberry, bean.
- The microcell zinc slows down aging of a crystalline lens. There is a lot of it in bilberry, pumpkin sunflower seeds, oat flakes, a liver, a yolk, squids.
- Ophthalmologists from China, based on data of the researches, advise to take green tea and to do of it lotions on eyelids. Catechins from green tea are very well absorbed by eye tissues, it and interferes with sight loss.
- Doctors advise to drink courses pharmaceutical vitamin preparations for improvement of exchange processes – Okuvayt Lyutein forte, Kvadevit, Undevit.
- Intensive and excessive ultra-violet radiation of the sun can increase risk of development of a cataract therefore it is better to wear dark glasses for protection of eyes.
- Surely check visual acuity and consult at the doctor-oculist.
Expeditious treatment of a cataract
At the moment the cataract can be removed in four ways.
- The oldest way – intrakapsulyarny extraction, removal of the crystalline lens which lost the transparency together with a sumchaty capsule in which it is placed. Function of the absent crystalline lens is carried out by or glasses chosen after the rehabilitation period.
- Method of ekstrakapsulyarny extraction. During operation the surgeon does a big section in a cornea, takes out a muddy crystalline lens, but thus leaves its capsule on the place, in it places an artificial lens. As the section essential, healing goes slowly, the patient is two weeks in a hospital under supervision of doctors, thus they appoint treatment that there were no complications.
- The following method is called as a fakofragmentation. It differs from previous in that before removal the surgeon splits up the crystalline lens which lost transparency for small parts therefore the section for removal of these particles becomes less.
- Today and sparing for health it is considered the safest the method called by an ultrasonic fakoemulsifikation. At first under the influence of ultrasound the surgeon softens a crystalline lens and brings it to the state similar to "emulsion" which at the following stage removes through a small puncture. Then the curtailed artificial crystalline lens on the same place where it and should be is accurately entered through the same puncture. Then the implanted intraocular lens (in abbreviated form IOL) independently finishes. The majority of the advanced ophthalmologic centers use the import artificial substitutes of crystalline lenses created from the qualitative soft materials having big functionality. Before operation to the patient dig in mestnoanesteziruyushchy droplets, no pain is present. After completion of manipulations suture is not even required. At such modern operation the risk of complications makes no more than 1%.
Duration of this microsurgery – 15-20 minutes. In 2 hours the ophthalmologist allows to go home the patient with the attendant.
And the latest innovation is a development of technology of use of the femtosekundny laser. Even the puncture is carried out not by the surgeon-ophthalmologist, and the new device. Then the artificial crystalline lens is steadily fixed in the pocket created by the laser.
Earlier having a cataract very much were afraid of operation, but modern technologies and development allow to return sight, having reduced risk of complications to a minimum. Cataracts in initial stages, than mature are easier operated.
Drug treatment of a cataract
Scientists and ophthalmologists consider a cataract is irreversible the proceeding process. They believe that the physioprocedures developed at the moment, tablets and drops cannot return to the dimmed crystalline lens former transparency. Sometimes doctors appoint to patients such drops as Vitafakol, Oftan-Katakhr, Vita-Yodurol, Taufon, Kvinaks, but they only slow down turbidity progressing process. Preparations on structure, the price, manufacturing firm and the mechanism of action differ.
National ways of treatment
It is useful to dig in honey drops in eyes, to do lotions on eyelids of solution with addition of the real honey from bee-keepers. Scientists proved that honey is the storeroom of the nutrients necessary to our eyes. Eat on a honey tablespoon in day.
For the prevention of pomutneniye infusion from orange flowers of a calendula (marigold) is recommended. To wash up a thermos hot water, to measure there 3 teaspoons of the crushed florets of a marigold, carefully to fill in them 0,5 l of boiled water. To close a thermos a cover. In 2 hours infusion is ready. To filter it, using a sieve or a gauze. It is necessary to drink 4 times a day on a half of a big glass (100 ml), up to one food better. It is still recommended by the same infusion to irrigate eyes.
Simple exercises from complex , massage of lobes of ears and impact on biologically active points also promote sight preservation.
InfoAdvisor.net hopes that the provided data and recommendations will help readers to keep sight for many years and to rejoice to world around.