That accumulators are one of the main details for many devices is already for anybody not a secret, but here what it is better and as it is correctly to use them, it still is a subject for discussions. But for a start after all it is necessary to present, and that it for an animal such – the accumulator.
For this purpose we will address at first to history.
If to take two independent (isolated) plates and to ship them in electrolyte solution, on these plates there is a potential difference, i.e. tension. Such element transforming energy of chemical reaction to electric energy was called an element of Daniel-Jacobi which consisted of the copper and zinc plates shipped in electrolyte. Its resource was small since zinc was quickly dissolved and return of electric energy too was ridiculous.
Since then passed a lot of time and chemical elements were improved, they became more power-intensive and small-sized, and their resource became many times higher and they found opportunity to be recharged, i.e. to restore the charge. However the general sign remained.
Let's glance in the acid accumulator that there is, from what and for what.
So, we will consider basic elements.
And everything begins with the case which holds contents and unites elements in a whole. By the way, after such association this device starts carrying the name – the battery. Thus expression "accumulator" not absolutely correctly concerning the battery. The accumulator is the device consisting of one element (banks).
For example, the battery (B) on 12 V contains 6 elements (accumulators), therefore, of 6 sections in the uniform case. However, there are also separate accumulators on 2 V, but it, as a rule, elements to the big capacity (one thousand amperes of hours).
The author does not advise to saw your battery for check and studying of its device since it is dangerous to you and is deadly to your accumulator!
The case has to be acid resisting, rather strong and maintain rather wide range of temperatures. The majority of modern cases for AB make of polypropylene. It consists of the basis (actually packages of plates also keep within it, and also electrolyte is filled in) and covers with traffic jams. In completely unattended batteries of traffic jams in a cover is not present. And instead of them the system of catching and condensation of an aerosol and channels for ventilation (drainage) removing excessive gas outside is provided. Besides, atmospheric pressure in AB is supported.
In case cells as they in life were called – banks, establish packages of plates. These packages consist of a set of plates of the alternating polarity. I think, you guessed that in each can the set in parallel of the connected plates is established. And for what? Capacity of the accumulator can be increased or increase in overall dimensions of plates, or increase in their number. Both ways lead to one effect – to increase in the area of plates. That leads to immediate increase in the contacting surface. Advancing events, I will tell that the increase in the contacting surface leads not only to increase in capacity of the accumulator, but also to reduction of its internal resistance, therefore, to increase in the current which is most given them.
Plates consist of lead and have cellular structure for drawing on it active weight. Active weight is the main reagent in operation of the accumulator. It is put with a pasting therefore such accumulators are called – accumulators with plates of namazny type. As it will affect, I will tell a bit later. By this principle divide accumulators into three types:
- with namazny plates;
- with plates from an armor-clad grid;
- with plates of the increased area.
In cars apply only the first.
Between plates, for prevention of their short circuit separators are among themselves established. They are executed from an elektroliticheska of the carrying-out plastic. This design is collected in a package and pulled together with a bandage. The bandage interferes with a divergence (falling apart) of plates, and also their mutual movement. The matter is that in the course of work of a plate can move under the influence of vibrations, or be deformed under the influence of electrodynamic current, for example, at a startirovaniye.
Conclusions of plates in pairs (pluses and minuses) are connected by tokosbornik who remove the electric power to output barns. Plugs of your car are also connected to these barns.
Packages of plates are established not on the bottom of the case, and is slightly higher that forms a so-called slurry interval. In the course of operation of the accumulator, active weight can exfoliate (to become swollen), lead oxidation products are also formed. All this is just besieged in this interval. If it was not, this slime would close the lower end faces of plates.
Types of acid batteries
At first sight everything would seem simply – lead and lead, that special here, but it not so.
Lead in itself in pure form cannot be applied since at such thickness of plates it is rather fragile and will crumble. Therefore apply the alloying additives. And until recently applied natural poison – antimony. Of course, the technology was improved, and the amount of antimony decreased, but it completely did not relieve AB of shortcomings of this method.
And shortcomings of antimonial batteries
are very essential. First, antimony is a strong poison and it does utilization even more difficult. Secondly, availability of antimony leads to the beginning of electrolysis of water already at 2 V / el. that for 12 volt batteries 12 Century equal. Thus from this value to a total charge (14,4 B) AB need to gather 2,4 B, it on time is a lot of. And what here terrible, you ask? And here that. Electrolysis of water leads to its decomposition on hydrogen and oxygen that increases danger of explosion of the detonating gas which is formed at their mixing. And release of oxygen conducts to intensive oxidation of positive plates where it actually also is emitted since has a negative charge (About-). On minus plates hydrogen (N +), which, as we know, fine reducer that to cathodes till the old age of AB is emitted. This circumstance forces to increase a resource of anodes by increase in their thickness, and it significantly increases the weight and dimensions. As also rather big minus of such batteries it is possible to consider their high self-discharge.
But, fortunately, there are also pluses. First, it is lower cost, secondly, ability to a certain limit without serious consequences to transfer deep categories. However, owing to told earlier, they do not maintain a recharge. It conducts to their intensive aging and the raised water consumption.
And what alternative then can be offered? Now so-called calcic batteries gain ground. In them as the alloying additive use (Sa), but not everywhere.
InfoAdvisor.net pays your attention that there are different types of such batteries. Is calcium-antimonial
where the first alloyed only anodes, and cathodes remain low-antimonial. It is a certain compromise in cost. Use of calcium here anodes from early destruction partially escape. But they are not relieved of all problems.
There are also completely calcic AB, they still are called calcium - calcium
(Sa/Sa). In them all plates are alloyed by calcium. Such design is more expensive, but is deprived of shortcomings of batteries of the previous types. Such AB are characterized by the low level of a self-discharge; the increased tension of the beginning of electrolysis of water (about 16 V – 2,67 B/el.); the smaller weight and dimensions at equivalent capacity. Batteries of this type, unlike low-antimonial, become already low-served, and in some cases unattended at all that reduces expenses of means, and the most important – time.
There are also shortcomings. It as it was already told, higher cost, and in the technical plan – intolerance to deep categories. The resource of such AB strongly suffers if to discharge them for 50% and more. After 3-4 such categories capacity can significantly decrease even on absolutely new accumulator. It is good that there is a panacea – not to allow such categories (to watch for elektriky your car).
Quite good feature is ability of calcic batteries to be exempted from an excess charge, they simply do not accept it. It excludes possibility of their recharge.
And here the term a recharge was already several times applied. And what is it? In this case the recharge is understood as not possibility of a repeated charge, and receipt of excess capacity in AB. Generally, certain overklok.
And than the recharge is terrible? There are some unpleasant moments. First, as well as this strengthened oxidation of anodes was told for low-antimonial AB. Secondly, the raised water consumption. Thirdly, the strengthened aging of active weight with its flaking from a surface of plates. Besides, temperature increases that even more heats a situation.
Well, so what AB after all to choose. Now I would choose completely calcic (Sa/S).
Here drawings where Sa/S's advantages of batteries visually are visible. In drawings curves: 1 – Sa/Sa; 2 – Hybrid (Sa / Antimony); 3 – Low-antimonial; 4 – Antimonial.
But, alas, on it torments of a choice do not come to an end but only begin.
Time in shop
But before it will not prevent to esteem a little more. For a right choice it is necessary to be guided in key parameters of the battery.
It is natural that the most important of them is its tension. The majority of automobile AB have this value of equal 12 Century. Actually it is more, but about it later.
As the second argument in favor of this or that AB it is possible to consider its capacity. And here not everything is so simple. But we will begin with concept.Capacity of AB
shows quantity of the electric power given in unit of time.
As at first sight can seem, AB with a capacity of 55 A*ch at current of category 55 A will work exactly 1 hour. At once I will make a reservation that AB is considered completely discharged if tension on it becomes equal 10,8 B (1,8 B/el.).
The number specified on batteries is the capacity given at +25 °C at current of the twenty-hour mode of the category.
Example. At the capacity of AB 55 A*ch current of the twenty-hour mode of the category is equal to I=55/20=2,75 A.
I.e. AB will give 100% of the capacity only in these conditions. This capacity it is accepted to call C20.
Actually it is possible to consider that AB gives 100% of capacity and at a ten-hour cycle (C10) that for the specified example is equivalent to current in 5,5 A.
I think, it is clear to you that at reduction of current it is less, than C20 current, capacity all the same will be 100% (will not increase).
I will reveal to you military secret. It is possible to achieve increase in the given capacity, up to 120%, by means of heating of AB to +50 °C (maximum permissible temperature of +55 °C). It can be made, but it is not necessary since it seriously ages AB.
And here towards increase in current of the category of business are where is worse. So, for example, the same AB 55 A*ch at current of the five-hour mode (C5) in 11 A will give only 80% of the capacity, and it only 44 A*ch. And is farther even worse.
But what after all to choose capacity? It is possible strongly without reflecting to choose recommended by manufacturer of your car, but it is possible also other than it. InfoAdvisor.net has to tell that smaller capacity cannot be chosen. First, it will not be enough neither for start, nor for operation. Secondly, the accumulator will become stronger to wear out since it will be discharged more deeply. Thirdly, as it is paradoxical, will and be recharged after completion of the lost capacity on start of the engine (the generator after all remained former power).
It is better to choose big capacity, but without fanaticism. Here it is necessary that the battery at least entered on dimensions on a regular place.
There is a popular belief, a certain myth that it is impossible to put the big capacity since it will chronically not be completed charging, but I assure you that it not absolutely so. The matter is that on start-up of the engine approximately identical amount of energy will be required, therefore, capacities and the generator without problems will repay this debt back in AB. It is put in a car design. Power of consumers from the established AB with the increased capacity did not increase and too will not show the excess account. Will be nedozaryad in cases when too large number of attempts of start was made, or there is no generator power. In the latter case the system of regulation of tension of the generator cannot raise more it at increase of loading and there is a restriction of tension.
The more loading, the more sag of tension on the generator. And when it is compared to tension on AB, about any charge of the last speech cannot go. On the contrary, the accumulator starts "helping" the generator with food of consumers. The tension on the generator is less, the more this help and the quicker is discharged by AB.
But besides, it is connected with a regular design electricians and directly with a generator power. On the Russian cars obvious deficiency of power of the generator is observed.
Thus, you can safely choose the accumulator with a capacity one step higher. For example, instead of 55 A*ch to put 60-62 A*ch. Thus you have an opportunity of surer start-up. Yes, but there is a nuance. If to discharge AB more than on a half of the capacity, it on the car will not manage to be loaded (generator). But sceptics should not rejoice, it concerns even AB at regular capacity.
Accumulator capacity size the extremely changeable. It can change depending on temperature (see table 1).Table 1 – Dependence of capacity of AB on temperature
|Category time||Temperature koef. at t, °C|
|More than 1 hour||0,81||0,94||1,00||1,03||1,06||1,09||1,15||1,21|
|1 hour and less||0,80||0,90||1,00||1,05||1,10||1,15||1,25||1,35|
Apparently from the table at zero degrees Celsius the capacity of AB is only 80% of face value. Whereas at the most admissible 55 degrees it makes at the category 1 hour and less already 135%.
In this case it is restored at achievement of normal temperature. Besides, already irrevocably, or nearly irrevocably, capacity eventually – natural aging, or because of violations of service conditions – artificial aging decreases. And how to understand – almost irrevocably? In certain cases AB is possible that is called "to encourage" one way or another. For example, a training cycle the category charge or a short-term charge the raised current.
And the last parameter is current of cold scrolling
is current which can give AB at minus 18 °C in the startirovaniye mode. Actually, the more this current, the will be surer start. It is necessary to understand that this current is directly connected with AB capacity, and grows with increase in the last. But even within one face value of capacity there is AB with various indicators. It is connected with this or that method of reduction of internal resistance of AB. And also there are formalities. Depending on the standard accepted by the manufacturer, the size of this current is broken a set (see table 2)Table 2 – Compliance of currents of cold scrolling according to different standards
|DIN 43559, GOST 959-91||EN 60095-1, GOST 959-2002||SAE J537|
Apparently from the table, even by the Russian state standard specification there are distinctions by a year of release of this standard. And distinctions, as you can see, not small.
There is also a set of other parameters which are regulated by standards, they are not specified on the case, but put structurally and have to meet standards of these standards. In Russia it is GOST 959 – 2002.
So, you decided on type and key parameters of AB, but also it is not enough. Now it is necessary to choose the producer
Concerning AB for cars it is necessary to reconcile to what even the good battery serves from 4 to 7 years. However, exhibits are worse which go to scrap of non-ferrous metal after 1-2 years.
Outsiders on quality it is possible to call works of Tyumen Battery Plant safely. They serve not long, but have big plus – they most cheaper. It is excellent option at sale of a car and only. Domestic AB, for example, "AKOM", "Titan", "Pilot", etc. it is possible to get and use safely, they are rather qualitative and durable. But, for example, at AKOMA there is no handle for carrying that is not always convenient. Import too not all is good, but the majority of the acceptable quality and long term of operation. Be careful of the Chinese hand-made articles and fakes!
And in general, in this question it is not necessary to be under a delusion, AB is an expendable material and, in fact, except a resource, in them there are no essential distinctions. Once again I emphasize, the main difference – only quality of production and all.
Example. You got the good accumulator of eminent and authoritative firm "VARTA" in shop and happy go to garage, but he for some reason refuses to work normally. Oh! So it old! T.o., do not trust only the name, surely check. Believe, precedents of such sales in quite decent shops already were.
Well. Here you came to shop, and from a set of the presented AB chose suitable you on quality and the price, and the most important that to which the soul lies. But it is not necessary to climb at once behind a purse. In general, never show a purse in advance! Here still there are some moments. Having come into shop, at once estimate temperature in it if too hot, it is not a buzzing. Look, where and as there are presented AB. Though at first sight their placement on a floor and not priglyadno, but is the best option. First, on a floor is more cool (worse, if at the ceiling). Secondly, the probability of blows at their statement on shelves is less.
I will remind, accumulators, as well as all chemical elements, it is better to store in cold.
It is better to stop the choice on accumulators, filled in and already ready to use. It will relieve you of many problems. For example, from acquisition it is not known what quality of electrolyte and its filling. From need of 3-hour endurance of AB after filling by electrolyte with the subsequent control of density and color. From adjustment of this density depending on the current charge of the battery.
The filled-in AB at plant guarantees high quality of electrolyte and full readiness for immediate use.
The second point of a choice follows from the first. For the filled-in AB there is a nuance – a difference between date of purchase and a date of issue which should not exceed one year. Attentively watch a date of issue on the accumulator case. On many import AB it is on the case bottom.
Do not overturn never AB, even the sukhozaryazhenny!
Actually anything terrible is not present if passed also bigger time, but then the seller would be obliged to recharge periodically AB (that as you guess, it did not do). Therefore here, as well as in many respects, the slogan approaches: "The is fresher, the better!". Do not listen to an assurance of the seller, why to you excess problems. You do not want to buy expired sausage, for example.
Further we pay attention to packing. It is worth noticing that in the majority that is absent at all (only on party). But there is also AB in personal packing which represents or a thermoshrinkable film, or in a cardboard box. In this case check integrity of packing and existence of blow traces on it, etc. If those are, it is better to refrain from purchase of this battery even if she is whole.
If packing is absent, or it to you was exposed to opening, attentively examine the accumulator. Pay close attention to output borna, to them there should be no traces from plugs, etc., and also scratches. They have to be covered with an even and gray layer of oxide of lead.
If AB which is filled in, examine its case, places of an exit of barns from the case and a stopper – everything has to be dry that points to tightness. Then the digital multimeter which is incidentally taken with itself will not prevent.
We put a measurement limit to 20 V of a direct current and we measure tension on AB conclusions, naturally, without loading, it has to be not less than 12,6 In if it not so (it is less), AB is already stored long ago, or in inappropriate conditions, or it rejected. In the matter to you the indications of a load fork shown by the seller to what since the error at this fork is very high and the scale is rather rough. After that it is possible to allow the seller to execute his favourite test – check by a load fork. This test can be trusted safely and even not to check since it is absolutely useless. It (this test) will not be passed by only absolutely "dead" samples which in decent shops simply does not happen.
All other defects come to light already at operation. Therefore do not forget to take the warranty card and the check it is desirable with the copy.
I will repeat, the load fork will not reveal to you any latent defects and will not determine the actual capacity of the accumulator. Of course, you do not determine the actual capacity in shop and any other ways, will not make it even on the car. It is carried out only by the control category.
However if you satisfied the aforesaid conditions, it already and it is not required. With probability of 90-95% it is possible to tell that capacity in norm.