General information and value for the person
The calendula belongs to big family slozhnotsvetny, it is the close relative to daisies, camomiles, asters.
Still Dioskorid noticed and described medicinal properties of a calendula, and then they were confirmed with national experience and scientific researches. Here only some curative actions: anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, zhelchegonny, healing. It can help at wounds, burns, a sore throat, , , eels. Is raw materials for production of infusions, tinctures, ointments, lotions, rinsings. On the basis of a calendula create cosmetic creams, shampoos, balms, toothpastes, hygienic lipstick, soap. Infusions are recommended to be added to foot trays to reduce perspiration, to get rid of cracks on heels.
In the Mediterranean bright orange petals use as refined seasoning to soups, sauces, meat dishes, natural dye. There are summer residents who fill flowers at a tea zavarivaniye, mixing of dough, decorate with petals salads, add to butter.
Marigold brings benefit not only to people, but also plants in a garden, preserving them against defeat by diseases and damages by insects wreckers (nematodes, tripsa, a plant louse, butterflies, raspberry a fly, the Colorado beetle). For these purposes the calendula is put on site perimeter, along paths, under trees, bushes, near beds. We try to surround our landings of cabbage (headed, ) with a calendula, that guarded "".
About , potatoes, onions, at us too on some bushes of a marigold.
Earlier a marigold was in yellow and orange tones, framed with juicy bright green leaflets. The modern calendula of a raznotsvetn is also diverse. For phytotherapy many productive varieties are created. And for decorative gardening many grades with large (having a diameter of 10 cm), simple and graceful terry inflorescences are removed. Some grades even grow up for the subsequent cut on bouquets. Now there are grades with gentle pink, cream, crimson, green, two-color "heads". Grades are subdivided on:
- undersized (height of 15-30 cm), popular grades of "Pigmi", "Calypso", "Goddess of the Sun";
- the srednerosly – their height fluctuates from 30 to 45 cm, for example, "Apricot jam", "A silk way (salmon-pink, terry), "Lemon juice";
- the tall, reaching 45-85 cm, for example, "An orange flamingo" (with fruit aroma), "Green heart", "the Sun of Egypt" (terry red inflorescences), "Confectioner", "Citron", "The Russian size".
The flower can have a form:
- the radiant;
Successful grades for cut: "The gold prince", "Patsifik", "Kabluna", "Oksana", "Zolottsa".
And here grades of a medicinal calendula: "Fiesta", "Radio", "The gold emperor", "The orange king", "Gold spheres", "Toch of Red".
Cultivation in a garden, in a kitchen garden, on beds
Undersized grades well will be suitable for bordyurny landings, a rock garden, Mauritian lawn. The calendula is perfectly combined with red, blue, violet flowers, for example, , cornflowers, lobelias. Low terry grades will decorate the balconies put in flowerpots, pots, baskets, containers, a cache-pot. A marigold grows in any garden earth, but most of all they like the soil fertilized by humus, moderately humidified, well trained. Therefore if soils poor, it is desirable to introduce in the fall potash, phosphoric fertilizers, humus. Very elegant the calendula grows on solar places. Grows and in a shadow, but then it is very much extended, blossoms not so plentifully, flowers more small. Between the magnificent, expanding grades it is necessary to leave distance about 40 cm, in other cases between plants 8 cm, and between ranks of 20-30 cm are left. The plant is carried to cold-resistant, it can transfer quite normally fall of temperature to-5 degrees, that is returnable frosts are not terrible to it. Therefore in an open ground we sow seeds at the beginning of May. There are gardeners who are engaged in landing towards the winter, displaying seeds on depth of 3 cm. Then in the spring, at a temperature of +4 degrees, the first small shoots which at further warming zealously start in growth already start appearing. If you want to see early blossoming, can put seeds in a hotbed in April, and then in May land seedling on a permanent residence. That the calendula pleased with the bright flowers improving mood, long time, landings can be made with an interval of week – and so for all May. In 3 weeks after emergence of shoots we thin out the plants or carefully we transplant in other places – on a bed, about vegetable cultures.
Noticed that the calendula even blossoming easily transfers changes, quickly gets used to a new habitat. If landings zagustitsya very much, it can provoke such diseases as a bacterial cancer, mealy dew, black decay. Such plants should be liquidated. Simply to look after a calendula – we carry sometimes out loosening, we pull out importunate weeds. We water only at the strong and long heat which is followed by lack of rainfall. If you wish magnificent bushes, resort to a method of a prishchipyvaniye of tops. And here grades for cut do not prishchipyvat, the it is less on such plants of buds, the more effective and larger inflorescences will turn out. It is possible to feed up several times plants complex fertilizers, and before crops to bring also urea, wood ashes. Florets on a calendula appear usually in 10 weeks after the first shoots seemed. Then it is possible to start collecting the opened baskets inflorescences. The they are brighter also nasyshchenny, the it is more in them than useful substances. We usually tear off baskets 2 times a week, and then we display to dry in a shadow or on suspended shelves in kitchen.
For some days of our absence at dacha, the revealed orange inflorescences appear again. We conduct collecting only in dry weather. Surprisingly, but the more we tear off a calendula, the more flowers it for us prepares, that is blossoming lasts till the fall, is frequent till October. If do not tear off a basket, in a month usually blossoming comes to the end, and in August it is already possible to collect "marigold", the ripened seeds. If not all seeds are collected, they give shoots in the spring, and, can be carried by a wind on all kitchen garden.
Rassadny way of cultivation of a marigold
To add bright paints to the country life in already early spring, some flower growers in March or the first of April sow seeds in the glasses filled with soil soil for seedling. The soil is humidified previously. Glasses are covered with a film or put in a package. When notice shoots, remove a film that did not prevent small seedlings grow correctly. Plants ascend at a temperature in the room of 20 degrees and above. Then they can already be raised at 18 degrees. Will add growth to top dressing seedlings, a dive. Before replacing seedling, it can be subjected to a hardening, taking out for some time for a loggia. Jumping is carried out to a flower bed in May.
Having sheltered on the country site a calendula, you reduce number of wreckers of the garden cultures, bright orange color will improve your emotional state, and also will be able to use medicinal and cosmetic properties of these elegant flowers. Moreover in addition derive esthetic pleasure, having spent a minimum of efforts.