Bronchial asthma – a widespread disease. Now the number of patients continues to increase, despite earlier diagnostics and modern approaches to treatment. In the world more than 150 million people having bronchial asthma are.
At bronchial asthma in airways there is a chronic inflammation which at an aggravation causes an asthma attack. The attack can be short-term or long. Often at early stages of a disease attacks pass in itself, and the person does not suspect about . Eventually, without treatment and prevention episodes of asthma arise more often and proceed heavier. As a rule, at this stage of people addresses to the doctor. Bronchial asthma has family character, so, predisposition to it is descended. Asthma at one of parents doubles risk , at both parents – doubles it still. At children and elderly people gets sick proceeds heavier.
The reasons of development of bronchial asthma can be a little. There are standard risk factors provoking its development:
- household allergens (house and paper dust), allergens of pets (hair of dogs, cats), disputes of mushrooms;
- allergens, widespread in environment: pollen of herbs, flowers, bushes, trees;
- food allergens also matter;
- smoking active and passive;
- professional allergens, for example, paints, varnishes, etc.
Play a part in developing of bronchial asthma and frequent viral infections of airways. It is more characteristic for children of younger age. More senior children have it not only a SARS, but also an allergy. At adults the disease develops because of influence of the allergens connected with their profession more often. One their reasons of development of bronchial asthma can be and ecological trouble – asthma meets in big cities and industrial regions authentically more often. Huge value plays also maintaining an unhealthy way of life, the frigid and humid climate adversely affects.
Main symptoms of bronchial asthma:
- the repeating asthma attacks with the whistling rattles on an exhalation when the person for simplification of breath adopts the compelled provision: sits, resting hands against knees, having inclined a trunk forward;
- short wind (the complicated breath) more often happens at night, the patient wakes up because of shortage of air or cough;
- physical activity, emotional stress, inhalation of allergens can provoke an attack;
- are tightened more long than 10 days, and there is a feeling that cough falls more deeply;
- short wind quickly passes at reception of bronchial spasmolytics (the drugs expanding bronchial tubes);
Sharp or more gradual beginning of an attack of asthma can be observed. But, as if there was not, all patients during an attack need medical care. If the episode of asthma arose for the first time, InfoAdvisor.net recommends to pass inspection at the pulmonologist.
Treatment of bronchial asthma
In recent years in a root the relation to treatment of bronchial asthma changed. It is connected with that scientists defined a crucial role of an allergic inflammation in airways and hyperreactivity (hypersensibility) of bronchial tubes. Two big directions in treatment of bronchial asthma are founded on it: basic anti-inflammatory therapy and rendering the urgent help at an attack. In our country, for example, the national program for bronchial asthma at children works.
InfoAdvisor.net would like to warn: the following material has information and fact-finding character and is not the management to self-treatment at all. The package of measures on treatment of bronchial asthma is selected strictly individually on the basis of data on severity of an illness. As a rule, severity is exposed after full inspection and the analysis of symptoms of an illness.
- Bronchial asthma of easy degree: attacks rare (on average 1-2 times a month), quickly pass without treatment or with use of drugs. Out of an attack the health does not suffer.
- Average degree is characterized by attacks heavier with asthma and involvement of the blood circulatory system (heartbeat, muting of warm tones). Inhalations of bronkhospazmolitik are required.
- Heavy asthma – frequent attacks, every day or 2-3 times a week, poses hazard to life and demands emergency measures. Between attacks short wind remains.
Basic anti-inflammatory therapy includes: corticosteroids (hormonal preparations) in tablets or inhalations. And inhalation corticosteroids are most preferable as possess a number of advantages: the highest effect, are delivered directly in airways and do not cause heavy side effects. Treat inhalation forms: Aldetsin, Bekotid, Beklazon, Budesonid, Pulmikort, Ingakort. Strong anti-inflammatory effect the inhalation preparation Intal (kromoglikat sodium), Tayled has (nedokromit sodium). These preparations accept long courses. At an exacerbation of an illness it is necessary to appoint additional drugs, and after an attack basic therapy is continued.
The urgent help at an attack of bronchial asthma:
- to remove causal and significant allergens;
- to provide access of fresh air, to undo clothes;
- to appoint one of the preparations possessing bronkhospazmolitichesky action: berotek N, salbutamol, beroduat. 1-2 doses are entered by means of the dosing aerosol inhaler or via the nebulizer (an interval between inhalations of 2 minutes);
- it is possible to give to the patient 1 tablet of an eufillin;
- to repeat inhalation if there is no effect in 20 minutes;
- at increase of asthma to call "ambulance".
At bronchial asthma there has to be a continuous close contact with the attending physician. As the individual plan of treatment for each patient was already spoken, formed. The plan has to be flexible, changing depending on weight and duration of an illness. The patient is constantly informed by the doctor on new methods of treatment of an illness. One of important points in treatment of bronchial asthma, is step approach. At increase of symptoms of bronchial asthma of the patient passes to higher step and treatment changes. During the weakening of symptoms and preservation of their manifestation at such level within 3 months the step decreases to almost full cancellation of drugs. A main goal is achievement of long remission (total absence or an urezheniye of attacks of asthma).
As a result of such approach to treatment of bronchial asthma, doctors had an opportunity to control an illness and to prevent attacks. Quality of life of such patients became much higher, and life expectancy increased.
As prevention of bronchial asthma experts recommend exercises, swimming. Inflation of balloons as the vital capacity of lungs increases is useful. Also the respiratory gymnastics is effective. Walks in the fresh air (in the wood and in park) in any weather give a positive charge. But thus, naturally, it is necessary to try to avoid the factors promoting development of asthma. Though completely to exclude such allergens as hair of animals, pollen and dust, it is extremely problematic, it is possible to reduce time of contact with them only. If allergens, are connected with your profession, it is recommended to replace a place and/or working conditions, or even to move to other district.
And, of course, it is necessary to avoid an inflammation of the top airways and in due time to carry out treatment.