The main problem of donorship of blood consists that blood is necessary constantly because not all its components can be stored long. On the other hand, intervals between dachas of blood have to be sufficient not to be injurious to health of the donor. Therefore it is necessary many donors who are regularly handing over blood or its components. Most of all need for donors of platelets as this procedure the most labor-consuming for the donor, and besides it is impossible to be the donor of platelets too long – in an organism the substances applied to separation of platelets from other blood collect.
In the large cities the need for donor blood is much higher, than in the small. It is connected first of all with what there are here hospitals where patients from all area, and sometimes and from all country gather. The person with a local registration can only be the donor is is connected with imperfection of databases of donors (regional bases are not connected in a uniform network). To take blood from the casual person risky – in that case it has to pass a karantinization, i.e. be stored some time (of 3 months before half a year), and only if during this time at the donor the latent diseases were not shown, such blood can be put on use. If the donor regularly passes inspections, this problem is removed.
Who needs donor blood?
When we ask a similar question, first of all think of the victims of various accidents. But actually just blood is necessary to them not so often. Much more often donor blood is required at childbirth – and quickly enough, the account goes on seconds.
But also women in labor consume not a lot of donor blood as it would seem. Its main part goes for treatment of those patients who needs regular blood transfusions or its components. These are having various anemias (Blekfana-Daymonda, Fankoni, etc.), patients with hemophilia, and also those who passes treatment by chemotherapy or radiotheraphy. At hemophilia and some anemias such transfusions have to be carried out regularly all life – more precisely life goes on, in fact, until there is an opportunity to receive transfusions. In other cases of transfusion of components of blood – part of the general therapy on which termination of people it is completely healthy.
InfoAdvisor.net considers useful to tell about donorship, we will try to relieve of fears of blood delivery, after all you, first of all, give help, it is worth treating it quite so.
Many heroic stories are connected with donorship of blood. For example, during the Siege of Leningrad the Leningrad institute of blood transfusion per day did not stop the work. Transition to preparations only of the first blood type was the only concession to a wartime – all groups can pour it that considerably simplifies transfusion in front conditions (it is impossible to mix).
To the donor two days off – day of delivery of blood and one more day on restoration are put, with preservation of a salary – and if delivery is necessary for the weekend or for some reason the donor comes to work, these additional days off are postponed to dates at the choice of the donor.
Types of delivery of blood
Blood can be handed over in several ways. The matter is that usually transfuse to the patient not blood "as is", and its certain fractions – what it is more necessary at this concrete moment. In all cases blood undertakes from a vein on a hand if any components of blood come back, they can come back or to the same hand, or to another.
It is possible to hand over actually whole blood
– doctors will understand then that with it to do. For time take 400-500 ml of blood from one donor.
It is possible to hand over platelets
– here procedure slightly more difficult. In the first day it is necessary to pass inspection (before it it is impossible to eat anything, for the analysis take 30 ml of a blue blood from the donor). On following or every other day it is necessary to undergo procedure of delivery of blood (an hour and a half on the device which takes away blood from a vein, filters from it platelets, and all the rest returns to the donor, take away only 450 ml of platelets). Such method is developed in order that it was possible to provide the patient with the necessary quantity of the platelets taken from one donor – at mixture of preparations of blood of several donors there are additional problems.
Examination is conducted in advance as for collecting platelets in the device the disposable sterile set (needles-hoses-capacity) is loaded, and such sets cost rather much.
There are two essentially different ways of delivery of platelets: faltering and hardware. InfoAdvisor.net considers useful to explain a difference between these two ways. Faltering trombotsitaferez is that at first the portion of blood is selected, from it platelets are taken, and the rest is filled in back to the donor, then procedure repeats. In the second case process happens almost continuously – from one hand blood is selected, passed via the device, and right there filled in in a vein of the second hand, process happens continuously. Actually the second option is better in every respect, but demands more difficult device which, unfortunately, is not at all stations of blood transfusion.
It is possible to hand over separately blood plasma
– approximately the same procedure, as trombotsitofarez, only without preliminary survey and on other device. Blood particles come back to a blood-groove, and plasma goes needing it. A blood dose for 1 time – 400 ml.
Even more exotic option – delivery of granulocytes
– derivative leukocytes. This type of blood donation is usually made necessarily as granulocytes are stored no more than 24 hours. The day before to the donor give an injection of the special preparation stimulating an exit of granulocytes in blood, next day carry out procedure similar to delivery of platelets. Granulocytes are necessary for at whom immunity is at the moment strongly weakened (as a rule, it is result of chemotherapy) and have to be poured to the recipient within a day, differently transfusion will not bring due result.
As well as where to hand over blood?
There are special stations of blood transfusion, it is simple to find the next to you in the Internet. Actions on collecting blood are regularly carried out, thus all necessary coordinates are given and the donor nearly for the handle conduct in the right place.
With himself it is necessary to buy the passport or the military ID, with a registration in the territory of that area where are going to hand over blood; it is possible to take a medical card (not necessarily). To women in case of suspicion one pregnancy better to refuse blood donorship.
It is also necessary to consider that blood is handed over usually is in interests and the donor, and doctors in the morning (during the period with 9 to 11, specify time). The donor – because in the morning the organism reacts to blood loss better, doctors – because it is not enough to receive blood, it it is necessary also to process for further storage.
Before giving blood it is necessary to pass medical examination, for the blood donor it is completely free. Inspection includes survey of the therapist (before each giving blood), clinical and biochemical blood test, blood test on hepatitis, HIV, . InfoAdvisor.net pays your attention that blood tests are surely carried out at station of transfusion, to make them in any policlinic and it is impossible to bring the reference. Analyses take in a day - two not to spend expensive disposable system for sub-standard components. For the first time also the group and a Rhesus factor is defined.
The blood type — is a sign which is descended. Is a set of the specific substances, individual for each person which are called as group anti-genes. It does not change during all human life. Depending on a combination of anti-genes blood is subdivided into four groups - O(I), A (II), V (III), AV (IV). Blood types were found in the XIX century.
Before each following delivery blood test is carried out repeatedly to avoidance of infection of people to which this blood will be transfused.
Necessary conditions for donorship
Not anyone can become the donor, there is a number of conditions, they include the list of the undergone operations, the available diseases, the weight and age of the person, and some other. To become the donor, first of all it is necessary to have:
- registration in the territory of that region where are going to hand over blood (it is connected with absence of the general base of donors over all country);
- weight is more than 50 kg (care about health of the donor);
- the age – the lower level of 18 years, top was cancelled, the decision is made by the doctor in each case.
In order to avoid infection of recipients absence of some diseases is required (absolute contraindication, i.e. the blood donor this person will be able to be never in life). Do not hurry to look for the reference book and to check symptoms of the listed below diseases – if you do not know that this such, most likely, you and do not have it:
AIDS, HIV infection carriage, syphilis, viral hepatitises, , brucellosis, sypny typhus, tulyaremiya, leprosy, toksikoplazmoz, echinococcosis, tripanosomoz, filyariatoz, rishta, leyshmanioz, malignancies, blood diseases, organic diseases of TsNS, total absence of hearing and speech, , drug addiction, alcoholism, of 2-3 St. coronary heart disease, the atherosclerosis, atherosclerosis, an atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis obliterating endoarteriit, nonspecific aortoarteriit, recurrent thrombophlebitis, an endocarditis, myocarditis, heart disease, bronchial asthma, a bronkhoektatichesky illness, emphysema of lungs, obstructive bronchitis, akhilichesky , stomach ulcer of a stomach and duodenum, chronic diseases of a liver, including the toxic nature and not clear etiology, kalkulezny cholecystitis with the repeating attacks and the phenomena of a holangit, cirrhosis, radiation sickness, diseases of endocrine system in case of the expressed violation of functions and a metabolism, strong short-sightedness (6 D and more), trachoma, a total blindness, generalized psoriasis, an eritrodermiya, eczemas, a piodermiya, sikoz, red a wolf cub, a bubbly dermatosis, fungal damages of skin (a microsporia, a trichophytia, favus, an epidermofitiya) and an internal (deep mycoses), pustulous diseases of skin (a piodermiya, furunkulez, sikoz), osteomyelitis sharp and chronic, the undergone operation with removal of body or an organ transplantation and fabrics.
Further InfoAdvisor.net will submit the list of diseases which are not absolute contraindication for donorship, but demand pro-procession of some time for their identification:
- if you had quinsy, flu, a SARS, from the moment of recovery (not to confuse to recession of temperature, the absolute recovery means) has to pass more than a month;
- if you had an exacerbation of allergic diseases, you will be allowed to delivery of blood in 2 months from the moment of knocking over of the sharp period;
- if you had a typhoid, the donor it is possible to become in a year from the moment of recovery;
- if you contacted to patients with hepatitis A, from this point has to pass more than 3 months; with patients with hepatitis B and C – over a year.
- Some restrictions and after operations are imposed:
- if did you operation without removal of bodies (including abortion), from this point has to pass more than 6 months;
- if to you extracted tooth, you will be able to hand over blood not earlier, than in 10 days;
- if you have a tattoo or you were treated , the donor it is possible to become a year later (actually for detection of possible infections enough 6 months, but are so written in the relevant law).
Separate conditions for women and, in particular, for young mothers. It is allowed to hand over blood, if:
- from the moment of the monthly passed more than 5 days;
- after the birth of the child passed more than a year;
- from the moment of the last feeding by milk passed more than 3 months.
Besides all above-mentioned, the following requirements are imposed to the donor:
- those to whom the inoculation became, allow to delivery of blood in 30 days (and if a hepatitis B inoculation – in a year and more);
- if any antibiotics were accepted, before delivery of blood has to pass 2 weeks;
- if analgetics were accepted, there is enough three days;
- from the date of alcohol intake has to pass 2 days.
For come back from the abroad also there are temporary restrictions, it is connected again with need for time for detection of a possible disease (if that is available). For more than 2 months which stayed the abroad, possibly to hand over blood only in half a year. Well, and if in a route there was a country where such disease as malaria often meets, the donor will are allowed to blood delivery not earlier than in 3 years.
Blood delivery procedure
First of all it is important to remember that before delivery of blood it is necessary to eat respectively – at least for two days to exclude fat, fried, smoked, sharp, milk, eggs. To drink a lot of liquid, but not alcohol (beer too is considered alcoholic drink). Not to take medicine, especially aspirin and analgetics. At least for an hour before giving blood not to smoke. Also it is necessary to sleep. On station of transfusion it is necessary to come on an empty stomach.
Actually procedure of delivery of blood begins with medical examination (measure the arterial pressure and pulse rate, take blood from a finger on hemoglobin) and filling of the questionnaire of the donor. Then the donor goes to a special office for delivery of blood and settles in semi-lying situation on a chair couch. The hand (or two hands depending on a way of blood donation) is wiped alcohol from the inside of an elbow, pressed above an elbow and ask "to shake the pump" a fist (can give something in a palm and ask to squeeze-unclench), to find a vein. The needle is accurately entered into a vein (disposable, unpacked at the donor), it is almost not sick. The needle and part of system fastens to a hand an adhesive tape that the donor did not injure to himself a hand the careless movement.
During long procedure of the donor can leave one, periodically coming to check as he, but with those who came the first time, so try not to arrive. And usually other donors who will call the doctor if something happens are near.
Sometimes suggest to watch the movie in the course of delivery of blood, but usually stations simply have no such equipment. It makes sense to take with itself a player (not the book as most likely both hands will be occupied).
Everything, process went. Usually take 400-450 ml of blood (or the necessary fraction). Delivery of whole blood takes 5-10 minutes, trombotsitofarez – 1,5-2 hours, delivery of granulocytes – approximately as much, plasmas – 40 minutes (this time actually for procedure, at station of transfusion it is necessary to spend a little more time – medical examination to, rest after). After everything is taken that is necessary (and everything is merged back in a blood-groove that is necessary), the nurse will apply a bandage a hand and will remind that you should not wet a wound in the next some hours. Usually already in couple of days does not remain any traces, in case of complications it is always possible to call on the same to station of blood transfusion and to ask how to be.
After procedure of delivery of InfoAdvisor.net blood advises not to hurry to leave station – some time that the organism calmed down and if the head suddenly begins to spin is better to sit quietly, it is better to be near doctors-nurses who know that with you.
At parting it is necessary to take the certificate of gratuitous donorship (it is necessary for registration of days off at work) if there is an opportunity – not in one copy (alas, reality such is that if to you it becomes suddenly bad on the street or in transport moreover and with hot scents on veins, will suspect the addict of you, than the donor) rather. If you hand over blood for a certain person – it is necessary to track that it was also reflected in the reference (in that case them 2 copies are precisely necessary at least – you will give one to the doctor treating the one to whom you help and on it the doctor will receive blood for the patient; and show the second to the employer).
Also you need the coupon on food. At delivery will explain to you where to use it – usually at station of transfusion there is a dining room, buffet or something something like that.
As it is better to be restored after giving blood – will explain to you on point of delivery. Generally it is a minimum of physical activities, high-quality food, enough liquid and, generally, a healthy lifestyle.
Feelings at donorship are rather individual. Pain from a needle in a vein is almost imperceptible and if nevertheless there is a fear of pain, it is possible to come to half an hour earlier and to receive the anesthetizing ointment (she acts not at once, therefore such stock of time).
At delivery of whole blood or erythrocytes dizzinesses are possible. Delivery of plasma results in easy euphoria.
At delivery of platelets it is possible to feel freezing – a side effect of use of a citron at office of platelets (it is applied that blood did not turn directly in system), which washes away calcium. In that case it is necessary to tell the doctor, he will give an injection of a gluconate of calcium and will wrap up you with a blanket. Feelings from such prick – a wave of heat, heat, increase of mood.
At delivery of granulocytes special feelings are not present, all of them fall on a preparation phase – when the organism strenuously develops leukocytes. Pass in the same way, as initial stages of cold.
But again InfoAdvisor.net reminds that at each feeling after delivery of blood will be different. In most cases the health at donors remains within norm, time for restoration is minimum or it is not required, a state quite efficient.
The periods between blood delivery
After blood delivery (on platelets, erythrocytes or integral) has to pass not less than 60 days before the following giving blood or 30 days before giving components of blood. Not less than three months – on restoration are recommended to do after 4-5 dachas a break. In total in a year no more than 5 times are allowed to hand over whole blood.
After delivery of platelets has to pass two weeks or more before the following delivery of blood or its components. Similar terms are established at a recent plasma exchange. Norm for delivery of plasma which cannot be exceeded – to 12 times a year.
If you handed over granulocytes, you can come to point of delivery of blood in 14 days for delivery of plasma and platelets, and in 30 days – for delivery of whole blood and granulocytes.