InfoAdvisor.net is pleasant in this puzzle that the set of interesting stories is connected with it, and we suggest you to examine them personally. The interesting facts, the most interesting emergence and the identity of the founder create the real cult round Rubik's cube. And, of course, we know how to solve this puzzle.
History of emergence and identity of the founder of a cube
Thanks to the invention Erno Rubic became the first officially registered millionaire in the East European socialist block. But in not too far 1974th Erno still was the modest 29-year-old teacher who lived in the apartment with parents. Young professor taught interior design in Academy of applied arts and crafts in Budapest.
One of positive traits of character of the teacher was that he was never going to stop on reached, and to give to students only one dry theory. In parallel he was fond of geometry and subject three-dimensional modeling as considered that each architect respecting himself or the designer has to have good skills of spatial imagination. It is possible to tell that students were lucky with professor who put heart and soul in their training and was going to train the real experts.
On one of versions, the cube had to become a subject for development of skills of this kind of thinking. Its project was born some years. Initially the invention looked as a set from 27 wooden cubes which had sides of different color (27*6=156 color sides).
Rubik tried to create the device in which multi-colored cubes will freely turn on the places, thus the design of a figure should not be broken. However, as well as usually also happens to all brilliant ideas, it was decided to cut all superfluous: only 54 external sides were left. If you pay attention, small cubes have different quantity of sides: two colors at lateral (12 pieces), three colors at angular (8 pieces), other six - unary. Such we see a classical cube of Rubik with which got used to play. By the way, in heart of the device there has to be one more cube, but on its place the special fastening mechanism of a cylindrical form which is strongly connected with each of external sides was placed. It allows them to rotate freely relatively each other.
Friends of the young scientist and his students became the first testers of a great puzzle. At that time Hungary was the former socialist camp, and free business was only the conditional term. Therefore Rubik only in the 1975th patented the design.
And in the 1977th there was to light the first party "the Hungarian magic cubes
" in bright packing. However to planetary triumph of the most sold puzzle in the history it was still far. Events developed quite slowly, and the toy did not hurry to submit the West. So far the computer businessman Tibor Lakzi who became interested in the invention did not get down to business. Rubika delighted with a cube, it undertook his advance together with the successful developer of games Tom Cremer.
In three years, thanks to successful marketing campaign, "cubic hysteria" began real. The first order for production of party in one million cubes was made, and the toy extended worldwide. By 1980 about 100 million legal copies and unimaginable quantity of fakes were issued already. In 1981 got the license for production and the USSR, however, it managed to the government in the sum of 3 million dollars, inconceivable for the Soviet person.
On the Soviet space the cube made the real furor: school students, students and teachers each free minute tried to collect a cube any free minute. That pupils did not distract from occupations, the cube was selected for the period of a lesson, however, teachers sinned with hobby for a puzzle instead of conducting lectures. At schools secretly held the championships on assembly speed: say that some managed to collect a cube in a minute though on the first assembly at Rubik left about a month.
Did not ignore the popular puzzle and the Ogonek magazine. Edition expressed opinion that Rubik's Cube opened for the Soviet person a way to virtual reality.
In 1982 in Budapest passed the first championship on high-speed assembly of a cube of Rubik in which representatives of 19 countries participated. Each of cubes prepared for participation was equally difficult confused by means of calculations of the COMPUTER. Each participant was given 15 seconds on studying of a figure then they started the decision.
The student Minkh Tkhay from the USA who collected a cube for 22,95 sec. became the first winner. Today the new world record is set up nearly monthly, and participants of competitions thought up a new intrigue: the cube needs to be collected not only as fast as possible, but also for the minimum quantity of turns. The mark in less, than 30 turns and speed in 5,55 sec. was at the moment established. Mathematicians, in turn, is convinced that really to collect a cube no more, than for 22 turns from any initial situation.
Today more than 60 books devoted to ways of a solution of a popular puzzle were published. The Soviet magazine "Science and Life" devoted to a cube a small column in each number, and it for several years!
Of course, over time mass hysteria on a cube ceased, and today it is difficult to find it on counters at all. Nevertheless, it still is the most classical and popular puzzle, as they say, "for all times".
And the unruly genius Erno Rubic, having been tired of world popularity, faded into the background and invented deafeningly successful "Rubic's snake" which basis was formed by an Ancient Chinese geometrical puzzle "tangram".
Also Erno founded "The international fund of Rubik" who is engaged in support of young inventors to this day. Also he is the Honorary Chairman of the Hungarian engineering academy and got a set of awards and awards. At the moment Rubik is outright keen on computer engineering and studies ways of measurement of relationship between the computer and its user.
How to collect a classical cube of Rubik 3х3
Rubik's cube 3х3 has a universal way of fast assembly which the vast majority of fans of a puzzle uses. However, if you bought a cube for the first time and in any way cannot collect it, Mirsovetov recommends to you to take it to pieces in the beginning and then to collect in the flowers. The matter is that the majority of the cubes which are especially made in China often are created incorrectly. In that case the similar way of assembly will not work.
First of all, it is necessary to examine special terminology of assembly:
- In - the top party;
- N - the lower party;
- П - right side;
- L - the left side;
- Ф - forward party;
- З - back party.
If letters in algorithm are specified without special symbols (for example, In, H), it means turn clockwise on 90 degrees. The letter with an apostrophe (for example, L', F') means turn on 90 degrees counterclockwise. With two apostrophes (P'', N'') - turn on 180 degrees, in any party.
After acquaintance with rules it is possible to start the first step.
On the lower party of a cube it is necessary to collect a cross. For a start it is necessary to be defined with a color. The cross has to remain always below while you collect a cube, it will serve as a certain reference point. You can make it any in the way, convenient for you.
Further it is necessary to collect the correct cross. It means that we decide on flowers of other parties, and the parties of a cross in the basis have to last as if on other edges on two small cubes, but from each party already there has to be the color.
If at you it is impossible to make it, twist the lower part of a cube (that that with a cross) until your cross will not coincide at least with two parties. Further you can appear in two situations specified on the picture.
We overturn Rubik's cube, and now a cross at us - the top party (In).
First situation: P, In, P', V, P, V'', P', Century.
Second situation: F'', Z'', N'', F'', Z''.
We collect the lower part (with a cross) completely. Here that at us it has to turn out:
The main strategy of this step - to tighten up a bottom so that elements rose on the places according to four formulas for four different cases. After all there was the most difficult - angular trihedral small cubes.
Situation 1 (in this drawing and further the basis of blue color): F', In', T.
Situation 2: P, In, P'.
Situation 3: P, In', P', In'', P, V, P'.
Situation 4: F', In', F or P, In, P' or P, V', P', In'', P, V, P'. Then you will take out a corner from the basis of a cube and will move it to the opposite side. Then you can resort to one of above-mentioned formulas, depending on a situation 1, 2 or 3.
When this procedure is executed, opposite completely collected the party will already have the center of the color.
At this stage we collect an average number of a cube of Rubik. Here it is necessary to understand that we need to find not simply one color, and two-color sides with certain combinations which have to be accurately on the places.
We look for from above edges where there is no color of the remained not collected side - with them we and we will work.
Situation 1: In', F', V, F, V, P, V', P'.
Situation 2: In, P, V', P', In', F', In, T.
Situation 3 - the edge appeared not on the place on average to a row and it needs to be developed: P, In', P', In', F', V, F, V', P, V', P', In', F', In, T.
Problem of this step - to move sides of the top layer so that subsequently to collect a cross of the last by shift of cubes. It is already not so simple, after all we need to collect the necessary edges, without breaking integrity of a cube. For this purpose we use a formula B, L', In'', L, In, L', In, L. Takzhe it is possible to use the formulas for cube edges given above.
We collect a cross. At this stage the formulas, depending on a situation are used. Here it is important not to overturn a cube throughout all assembly.
Situation 1: F, In, N', L, In, N', Z, V, N', P, V, N'.
Situation 2: we twist the top part of a cube until the problem side does not appear in a situation 1, and we apply the same formula.
Situation 3: F, In, to N', L, In, N', Z, V, N', P, V, N' and then by rotation of top we return edges on the places.
Though the top is built, angular sides still not on the places. At this stage we move them on the places, without reflecting yet on how they are turned. Here that we receive as a result:
For movement of corners we use a formula P', F', L', F, P, F', L, T.
Step 8: final.
We overturn our corners according to color. Try not to rotate a cube throughout performance of a formula not to get confused. As a result at us finally collected cube of Rubik will turn out, and you can congratulate yourself on a victory:
Having appeared in a situation in the following drawing, rotate a cube on a formula P, F', P', F, P, F', P', F until it does not accept the necessary position.
You will appear in the following situation:
Turn a top, on 90 degrees in any party that on a place of a collected corner it was any other, and we repeat the previous combination. We twist until we develop a side correctly (the necessary color up).
It will turn out here so:
We change corners and we rotate a cube on a formula, we will not receive ideally collected combination yet.
We congratulate, you solved a puzzle!